The International Model W-9 bearing the Serial No. 25113

by

Brian Wayne Wells


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The 100° longitude meridian line runs north and south over the states of
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.  This
longitude line separates the Great Plains of the United States
from the Midwest
.  The 100 longitude meridian line is a nearly precise boundary between the ample rain of the Midwest and the dry weather of the Great Plains
.  Because of this differentiation the agriculture that developed on the east side of the 100 longitudinal meridian (the Midwest) was richly diversified with small-acreage farming growing corn and other row crops and also hogs and dairy cows.  Meanwhile agriculture west of the 100 Meridian
(the Great Plains
) was dry, rain and water for crops was a perscious commodity.  Agriculture on the Great Plains tended toward dry-land farming in which part of the arable land of a farm would lie fallow for a year to collect moisture through rain and snow melt just to grow a crop once every two years.  (This method of dry-land farming has been described in the article called “Allis-Chalmers Farming (Part I) Dry-Land Farming in Wyoming” published in the issue of Belt Pulley magazine and on this on this website.) 
Because of the lack of rain and the need for half the arable land to lie fallow meant that a great deal of land was needed for farming in the Great Plains
.  Large scale farming was called for in the Great Plains
and wheat became the dominate crop.  Thus, the method of farming from “horizon to horizon” developed.  There were no fenced in 35-acre fields as there were in the Midwest
.  Wheat was planted as far as the eye could see.  Because of the need to control moisture robbing weeds on the land lying fallow ground, tillage of the fallow land in the summer in addition to the regular tillage required to prepare the land and plant the wheat was required.  Farming on the Great Plains was a highly tillage-intensive operation.
Because of the differences in the farming between the Midwest and the Great Plains, different forms of machinery were developed for the Great Plains as opposed to the machinery used in the Midwest
.   In the Midwest
, tricycle-style tractors suited for the cultivation of row crops became the most common form of tractor power.  In the Great Plains
, large “standard” or “four-wheel” tractors came the norm.  The design of the standard tractor with shorter drive wheels on the rear end of the typical standard tractors lowered the “center of draft” of the tractor closer to the ground and provided greater pulling power to the standard tractor.  Additionally the wider tires on the rear drive wheels of a standard tractor provided the standard tractor with more traction on the ground. 
The design of the typical row crop tractor, on the other hand, required tall wheels to allow tall crops (largely corn) to pass undamaged under the axle housings of the tractor during late-season cultivation.  Row crop tractors also required rear drive wheels to be narrow enough to pass between rows of crops that could be planted as close as 30 inches apart.  The taller drive wheels on the rear of the typical row crop tractor raised the “center of draft” of the tractor and weakened the “pull” of the tractor.  Furthermore, the narrow drive wheels on the rear of the typical row crop tractor reduced the traction of the tractor. 
Without the narrow wheels and tall clearance under the axle housings standard tractors were not suited to cultivation of row crops.  Standard tractors were intended as a power source for large scale tillage of fields, i.e. plowing, discing and other heavy-duty seed bed preparation.  As such the standard tractor was marketed to the Great Plains
where tractor manufacturers reasoned that the greatest number of these tractors would be put to use.       
By the end of the Second World War in 1945, most full-line farm tractor manufacturers were producing a series of row crop tractors in varying sizes for cultivation of row crops.  They were also continuing to produce four-wheel or standard tractors for large scale tillage operations.  Not surprisingly, these large standard tractors were marketed to farmers and ranchers in the Great Plains
where the farming involved a great amount of tillage and was “horizon-to-horizon” scale.    
International Harvester’s entry into this large standard tractor market was the gasoline fueled McCormick-DeeringModel W-9 standard tractor and the diesel fueled McCormick Deering Model WD-9.  The W-9 had been introduced in 1940 as part of the letter-series tractors.  (See the book called Letter-Series Tractors by Guy Fay pp.  through  .)  The W-9 was the largest tractor in the McCormick Deering/Farmall line of tractors—weighing  6800 pounds.  Tests of the W-9, before the war, at the University
of Nebraska
on , 1940 had revealed that the W-9 could develop 50 horsepower at the belt pulley.  These tests also revealed that because of the standard four-wheel design of the W-9, a large portion of this horsepower (     hp.) could be delivered to the wheels.  Production of the W-9, WD-9 and the other smaller International Harvester standard tractors i.e. the Models W-6 and W-4, was assigned to the company’s manufacturing facilities located at 1614 Bruce Avenue
in Milwaukee
, Wisconsin
.  
During the Second World War, rubber was a precious commodity which the United States
government channeled almost entirely to the war effort.  Consequently, rubber tires for civilian use on farm tractors were extremely rare until the end of the war.  Iron and many metal alloys were also channeled into the war effort.  Thus, the International Harvester Company was unable to make more that     W-9’s and WD-9s during the war.  Virtually all of these tractors were mounted with steel wheels rather than rubber tires.  By 1946, however, the end of the war  meant the return of rubber tires for civilian use.  Production of the W-9 was increased again and was sold with wide 14.00 x 34” wheels in the rear and 9.00 x 20” wheels in the front. 
Use of calcium chloride in rubber tires of the rear drive wheels of tractors had been popular before the war and now with the return of rubber tires to the market following the war, calcium chloride also returned.  The large 14.00 x 34” rear wheels of the W-9 and WD-9 could hold enough fluid to raise the weight of the tractor from 6,700 pounds to 9,100 pounds.  With the rear tires of the tractor “nailed to the ground” with this much weight, the W-9 surely was a tractor made for tillage on a large scale.  
With all basic manufacturing raw materials channeled to the war effort during the war, farmers all across the United States
were unable to buy new tractors or new farm machinery.  Very little, if any, farm machinery or farm tractors were being built.  This resulted in a strong pent up demand for new farm tractors and farm machinery.  With nothing to spend money on to improve their farming operations, the percentage of farm income that rose during the war.  In the this situation the price of land increased in price dramatically—reaching the unheard of price of $200.00 per acre! in Mower
County
and Fillmore County
, Minnesota
during the war.  Generally established farmers tended not to buy land .    Some ers tended to save the  At the end of the war ve  Nothing and new
            The W-9 bearing the serial number 25113 rolled off the assembly line at the International Harvester Company’s “Milwaukee Works” in the afternoon of May 15, 1947. 
 
 
With calcium chloride fluid in the rear tires No. 25113 weighs 9100 lbs.  However, because calcium chloride notoriously rusts the metal rims of tires, calcium chloride is a bane to all collectors and restorers of old farm tractors.  Accordingly, the fluid in the tires of No. 25113 was removed and new tubers were installed in the rear tires. 
 
            Although International Harvester introduced the new line of streamlined rowcrop "Farmall" tractors (the Model M, Model H, Model A, and Model B) in 1939 to replace the non-streamlined the (Model F-30, Model F-20 and Model F-12), introduction of the streamlined "standard tread" model tractors (Model W-9, Model W-6 and Model W-4) had to wait until 1940.  Indeed, although in 1940, International Harvester serial number lists and production records agree as to the fact that 213 tractors were produced in the "Four series" in 1940 and 287 tractors were produced in the "Six series," the serial number lists and the the production records of the Milwaukee Tractor Works do not agree as to whether any of the "Nine series" tractors were produced at all in 1940.  This leads some authorities to the conclusion that the Nine series was not truly introduced until 1941.  (Lee Klancher, International Harvester (Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc., 1996) p. 173.)  Probably part of the reason for the delay in the production of the Nine Series, was the fact that the Nine Series tractor was an all-new design of tractor.  
 
            However, the Nine series was to become the most popular seller of the new line of McCormick-Deering streamlined standard type tractors.  Over the entire run of production 74,141 tractors of the Nine Series were produced and sold as opposed to 56,482 tractors of the Six Series and 35,868 tractors of the Four Series.  (Ibid. pp. 166, 170 and 173.) in New York
,  0were  the number of cModel W-60t  Right from the first the "Nine series" (W-9, WD-9 and WR-9 and WDR-9) proved to be the mosst e

The 100° longitude meridian line runs north and south over the states of
North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. 
This longitude line separates the Great Plains of the United States
from the Midwest.  The 100 longitude meridian line is a nearly precise
boundary between the ample rain of the Midwest and the dry weather
of the Great Plains.  Because of this differentiation the agriculture that
developed on the east side of the 100 longitudinal meridian (the Midwest)
was richly diversified with small-acreage farming growing corn and
other row crops and also hogs and dairy cows.  Meanwhile agriculture
west of the 100 Meridian (in the Great Plains) was dry, rain and water for
crops was a prescous commodity.  Agriculture on the Great Plains tended
toward dry-land farming in which part of the arable land of a farm would
lie fallow for a year to collect moisture through rain and snow melt just to
grow a crop once every two years.  (This method of dry-land farming has
been described in the article called “Allis-Chalmers Farming (Part I)
Dry-Land Farming in Wyoming” published in the issue of Belt Pulley
magazine and on this on this website.) 

Because of the lack of rain and the need for half the arable land to lie fallow
meant that a great deal of land was needed for farming in the Great Plains. 
Large scale farming was called for in the Great Plains and wheat became
the dominate crop.  Thus, the method of farming from “horizon to horizon"
developed.  There were no fenced in 35-acre fields as there were in the
Midwest.  Wheat was planted as far as the eye could see.  Because of the
need to control moisture robbing weeds on the land lying fallow ground,
tillage of the fallow land in the summer in addition to the regular tillage
required to prepare the land and plant the wheat was required.  Farming
on Great Plains was a highly tillage-intensive operation.

Because of the differences in the farming between the Midwest and the
Great Plains, different forms of machinery were developed for the Great
Plains as opposed to the machinery used in the Midwest.   In the Midwest,
tricycle-style tractors suited for the cultivation of row crops became the
most common form of tractor power.  In the Great Plains, large “standard”
or “four-wheel” tractors came the norm.  The design of the standard tractor
with shorter drive wheels on the rear end of the typical standard tractors
lowered the “center of draft” of the tractor closer to the ground and
provided greater pulling power to the standard tractor.  Additionally,
the wider tires on the rear drive wheels of a standard tractor provided the
standard tractor with more traction on the ground. 

The design of the typical row crop tractor, on the other hand, required tall
wheels to allow tall crops (largely corn) to pass undamaged under the axle
housings of the tractor during late-season cultivation.  Row crop tractors
also required rear drive wheels to be narrow enough to pass between rows
of crops that could be planted as close as 30 inches apart.  The taller drive
wheels on the rear of the typical row crop tractor raised the “center of
draft” of the tractor and weakened the “pull” of the tractor.  Furthermore,
the narrow drive wheels on the rear of the typical row crop tractor reduced
the traction of the tractor. 
Without the narrow wheels and tall clearance under the axle housings
standard tractors were not suited to cultivation of row crops.  Standard
tractors were intended as a power source for large scale tillage of fields, i.e.
plowing, discing and other heavy-duty seed bed preparation.  As such the
standard tractor was marketed to the Great Plains where tractor
manufacturers reasoned that the greatest number of these tractors would
be put to use. 

By the end of the Second World War in 1945, most full-line farm tractor
manufacturers were producing a series of row crop tractors in varying
sizes for cultivation of row crops.  They were also continuing to produce
four-wheel or standard tractors for large scale tillage operations.  Not
surprisingly, these large standard tractors were marketed to farmers and
ranchers in the Great Plains where the farming involved a great amount of
tillage and was “horizon-to-horizon” scale. 
 
International Harvester’s entry into this large standard tractor market was
the gasoline fueled McCormick-Deering Model W-9 standard tractor and
the diesel fueled McCormick Deering Model WD-9.  The W-9 had been
introduced in 1940 as part of the letter-series tractors.  (See the book called
Letter-Series Tractors by Guy Fay pp.  through  .)  The W-9 was the largest
tractor in the McCormick Deering/Farmall line of tractors—weighing  6800
pounds.  Tests of the W-9, before the war, at the University of Nebraska on ,
1940 had revealed that the W-9 could develop 50 horsepower at the belt
pulley.  These tests also revealed that because of the standard four-wheel
design of the W-9, a large portion of this horsepower (     hp.) could be delivered to the wheels.  Production of the W-9, WD-9 and the other smaller International Harvester standard tractors i.e. the Models W-6 and W-4, was assigned to the company’s manufacturing facilities located at 1614 Bruce Avenue
in Milwaukee 00, Wisconsin
.  
During the Second World War, rubber was a precious commodity which the
United States government channeled almost entirely to the war effort. 
Consequently, rubber tires for civilian use on farm tractors were extremely
rare until the end of the war.  Iron and many metal alloys were also
channeled into the war effort.  Thus, the International Harvester Company
was unable to make more that     W-9’s and WD-9s during the war. 
Virtually all of these tractors were mounted with steel wheels rather than
rubber tires.  By 1946, however, the end of the war  meant the return of
rubber tires for civilian use.  Production of the W-9 was increased again
and was sold with wide 14.00 x 34” wheels in the rear and 9.00 x 20” wheels
in the front. 
Use of calcium chloride in rubber tires of the rear drive wheels of tractors
had been popular before the war and now with the return of rubber tires to
the market following the war, calcium chloride also returned.  The large
14.00 x 34” rear wheels of the W-9 and WD-9 could hold enough fluid to
raise the weight of the tractor from 6,700 pounds to 9,100 pounds.  With the
rear tires of the tractor “nailed to the ground” with this much weight, the
W-9 surely was a tractor made for tillage on a large scale.  

With all basic manufacturing raw materials channeled to the war effort
during the war, farmers all across the United States were unable to buy
new tractors or new farm machinery.  Very little, if any, farm machinery or
farm tractors were being built.  This resulted in a strong pent up demand
for new farm tractors and farm machinery.  With nothing to spend money
on to improve their farming operations, the percentage of farm income
that rose during the war.  In the this situation the price of land increased in
price dramatically—reaching the unheard of price of $200.00 per acre! in
Mower County and Fillmore County, Minnesota during the war.  Generally,
established farmers tended not to buy land .    Some ers tended to save the 
At the end of the war ve  Nothing and new
            The W-9 bearing the serial number 25113 rolled off the assembly line
at the International Harvester Company’s “Milwaukee Works” in the
afternoon of May 15, 1947. 
  
With calcium chloride fluid in the rear tires No. 25113 weighed 9100 lbs. 
However, because calcium chloride notoriously rusts the metal rims of
tires, calcium chloride is a bane to all collectors and restorers of old farm
tractors.  Accordingly, the fluid in the tires of No. 25113 was removed and
new tubers were installed in the rear tires. 
 
            Although International Harvester introduced the new line of
streamlined rowcrop "Farmall" tractors (the Model M, Model H, Model A,
and Model B) in 1939 to replace the non-streamlined the (Model F-30, Model F-20 and Model F-12), introduction of the streamlined "standard tread" model tractors (Model W-9, Model W-6 and Model W-4) had to wait until 1940.  Indeed, although in 1940, International Harvester serial number lists and production records agree as to the fact that 213 tractors were produced in the "Four series" in 1940 and 287 tractors were produced in the "Six series," the serial number lists and the the production records of the Milwaukee Tractor Works do not agree as to whether any of the "Nine series" tractors were produced at all in 1940.  This leads some authorities to the conclusion that the Nine series was not truly introduced until 1941.  (Lee Klancher, International Harvester (Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc., 1996) p. 173.)  Probably part of the reason for the delay in the production of the Nine Series, was the fact that the Nine Series tractor was an all-new design of tractor.  
 
            However, the Nine series was to become the most popular seller of
the new line of McCormick-Deering streamlined standard type tractors. 
Over the entire run of production 74,141 tractors of the Nine Series were
produced and sold as opposed to 56,482 tractors of the Six Series and
35,868 tractors of the Four Series.  (Ibid. pp. 166, 170 and 173.) in New
York,  0were  the number of cModel W-60t  Right from the first the
"Nine series" (W-9, WD-9 and WR-9 and WDR-9) proved to be the
mosst e

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