By 1928, the Wood Bros. Thresher Company appeared to be at the top of its form, and its future looked even brighter. Having successfully overcome a few challenges in its recent history (the disastrous fire of 1917, another fire–although somewhat less disastrous–in 1926, and a change of factory locations in 1926), production of threshing machines was at a new all-time high. Franz L. Wood presided over a company that was the largest, single industrial project between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, with his brother Robert L. serving as treasurer. The company produced enough threshers that year, such that 200 threshers were delivered aboard a single train to its branch house in Fargo, North Dakota. Yet, just when everything appeared to be at its best, the greatest disasters befell. Already in 1928, warning signs were out which too many people would ignore, pointing to a major economic cataclysm just ahead. The effects of this period of economic stress would have a tremendous impact on the Wood Bros. Thresher Company.
Despite the debt that the company had accrued in its move in 1926 to the new location at 1700 E. Aurora Avenue, and despite objections from his brother and other people within the company, Franz was able to divert some of the resources from the sale of threshers into building combine harvesters. Franz correctly foresaw that combine harvesters were the wave of the future that would eventually replace the stationary thresher/separator on all United States farms. He wanted to position the company securely in the new combine market before thresher sales started to decline in favor of the new combines. It was a bold plan that promised to assure the future prospects of the company.
In 1929, Wood Bros. marketed its first model combine harvester/thresher. Three models of the new combine, with its unique overshot-type cylinder and fork-type impeller feeder, were offered to the public–a model with a 12-foot cutter bar, a model with a 16-foot cutter bar, and a model with a 20-foot cutter bar. Furthermore, the company made plans to boost combine production to 1,000 machines in 1930. The company, borrowing more money from the bank for the increase in production, suddenly found that the total debt on the bonds they still had left to pay together with the new loan they had just taken out added up to $950,000.00. Continue reading Wood Brothers Company (Part II)→
As published in the January/February 2001 issue of
Belt Pulley Magazine
In 1831, when Hiram and John Pitts developed the first threshing machine, bundles of grain had to be fed by hand into the thresher. Until the process of harvesting grain was mechanized in the late nineteenth century, hand-feeding of bundles into a thresher created a real bottleneck. Hand-feeding required a worker to stand at the front of the thresher to receive each bundle from another worker on the bundle wagon or stack. Then he had to cut the twine on the bundle and feed the bundle into the thresher. The threshing process could go no faster than the worker feeding the bundles into the thresher. Furthermore, hand-feeding of bundles was a dangerous job: once the bundle was fed, the rapidly spinning cylinder tended to “snatch” the bundle out of the hands of the person feeding the bundle. The person’s hands were only a short distance away from the cylinder and in danger of serious injury. There was also the danger of foreign materials getting into the cylinder and being thrown back up into the face of the person feeding the bundles. Consequently, there was a real need to develop some device that would eliminate the need for a person in this dangerous position and that would considerably speed up the threshing process. In the middle 1880s, just such a device was under experimentation on a South Dakota farm owned by the Wood family.
South Dakota was, in the 1880s, in the middle of a boom period, as the effects of the Panic of 1873 had subsided by 1878. They were showing signs of becoming a great wheat producing state, and settlers were moving in from Minnesota and other points to the east. (Herbert S. Schell, History of South Dakota, [University of Neb. Press: Lincoln, 1975] pp. 158-174.) There were growing pains, of course, and emotional debates would break out over a great number of issues. One such instance was the six-year “Spink County War” which broke out in 1878 over the issue of whether the county seat should be located in the town of Ashton or the town of Redfield.
This dispute eventually led in an armed mob of 300 citizens of Ashton in 1884 marching on Redfield to demand the return of county records which had been forcibly removed from Ashton by Redfield citizens. As a consequence, two companies of territorial militia had to be dispatched from Fargo to Spink County to dispell the conflict. However, by the time the militia arrived, the tense situation had eased. (Ibid. p. 204.) Nonetheless, boundless optimism was in the air in South Dakota. Anything seemed possible, and this feeling attracted young men from all over the United States. Among the young farm families immigrating into South Dakota in the spring of 1885 was the Wood family.
Originally from Marlboro, Massachusetts, the Wood family consisted of the parents and two daughters–Susan (born in 1855) and Clara (born in 1858). Sometime in the late 1850s or early 1860s, the family moved from Massachusetts and settled in Freemont Township in what would become Winona County in the southeastern corner of Minnesota. While living in Freemont Township, two sons were born–Robert L. (on August 31, 1861) and Franz John (on March 7, 1864)–thereby completing the family. In the spring of 1885, the Wood family learned of free land available for settling in South Dakota. Thus, they moved there and settled on a piece of land in the extreme southeastern corner on the state in Spink County on the border with Hand County. Later that same year, Franz Wood took “pre-emption” on a plot of land for himself a short distance away and Robert also took a claim on yet another plot of land. (Later, Robert would use his land as collateral when he went to Huron to get a loan in order to buy two identical mules–Jack and Jinnie.)
The summer of 1886 was a busy one for the Wood family, but they also made time to socialize with their neighbors. They helped organize the Turtle Creek baseball team, with Robert chosen as captain. Also, in 1886, Robert and Franz Wood purchased a straw-burning, 12-horsepower Case traction steam engine and a hand-feeding Case 36″ x 58″ thresher and began a custom threshing business operating from their parents’ farm. Moving from farm to farm in the neighborhood, they supplemented their farm income with this business.
Over the next couple of years, the brothers became intimately aware of the problems inherent with hand-fed threshers. Thus, they set about developing a self-feeding mechanism. In the optimistic enthusiasm that was part of the atmosphere of South Dakota during this time, the young men believed that they could invent a feeding mechanism that would speed the process of threshing and make it safer. At the end of the harvesting season in 1889, Franz purchased a blacksmith’s forge, hammer and tongs, as well as an old claim shanty to house his new shop. All during the fall and winter of 1889-1890, he worked on the new self-feeder. When it was completed, the new self-feeder was tested on their own Case 36″ thresher in the summer of 1890. Unfortunately, it proved to be a disappointment and broke under the stress after just 10 minutes of operation.
Not to be deterred, Franz began again to build another feeder made from stronger steel. In order to have important castings properly made, Franz traveled back to Freemont, Minnesota, where he had been born, to have his cousin’s husband, Arthur Craine, a local blacksmith, work on the self-feeder with him. While in eastern Minnesota working on the self-feeder, Franz traveled to another blacksmith shop in Rushford, where he worked on the self-feeder most of the winter. Continue reading The Wood Brothers Company (Part I)→
This article remains under construction. Periodically, new blocks of text and media may appear and/or the present blocks of text may be modified or corrected.
(NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Brian Wells relates to us that this is a significant article in one very important way: It is the first truly “interactive article” he has written. Brian says that this article could not have been written without the help of Belt Pulley readers who responded to requests for information on the Belle City Company. When all of his usual sources–local public libraries, local and state historical societies–had failed him in his pursuit of information on this company, only the responses from readers made this article possible. Thus, Belt Pulley has becomes a forum of two-way communication–an interactive magazine. We hope this trend will continue and grow. As noted in our last issue, Brian has been attempting to write an article on the Wood Brothers Threshing Company of Des Moines, Iowa. Once again, a search of his usual sources has yielded very little information. Brian relates that he has received some calls and letters from readers with good information; however, he is still looking for material on the corporate history of the Wood Brothers Company.)
The company that became known as the Belle City Manufacturing Company was the result of an 1882 merger of two separate commercial entities. These business entities were the David Lawton Company and the Racine Brake Company. Both of these corporations wered located in Racine, Wisconsin.
In 1878, David Lawton was already the owner of a successful flour, feed and implement store in Racine, Wisconsin (1870 pop. 9,880), when he started a manufacturing concern called the David Lawton Company. The company was first located at 300 Fourth Street in Racine where it began manufacturing feed cutter for the growing Midwest farm market. The feed cutter, or ensilage and fodder cutter, was a small machine, about the size of a typical fanning mill, made of wood, with a long elevator attached to the rear of the machine which could raise the chopped ensilage up into the barn or silo. (An 1886 advertisement for a feed cutter shows it being powered by a two-horse treadmill. One of these Belle City machines is owned by Paul Coussens of South Bend, Indiana. Paul and his son, Daniel, are currently attempting to restore this very early product of the Belle City line of farm machinery. Although the Paul and Daniel Coussens feed cutter was made after the 1882 merger and, thus, is. technically, a “Belle City Company” feed cutter, the Coussens feed cutter bears many design features that reveal its heritage as a descendant of the feed cutter made by the David Lawton Company.
The other business entity that was part of the 1882 merger with the David Lawton Company was the Racine Brake Company. The main product of the Racine Brake Company was a wagon braking system that could be mounted was the various models of horse-drawn wagons that were being made in the 1880’s.
Following the 1882 merger, the Belle City Manufacturing Company was incorporated under the business laws of the State of Wisconsin, with $30,000.00 in capital. David Lawton became President of the new company, with Frank K. Bull, a former owner of the Racine Brake Company, as Vice-President, and Louis Emery Jones as Secretary/Treasurer. The Company established their factory at 346 North Wisconsin Street in Racine where the made a line of farm implements including carts, feed cutters and wagon brakes.
Even though David Lawton became President of the newly formed Belle City Corporation, he was quite busy with many of his other business concerns, such as operating a flour and feed store located at 219 5th Street in Racine. Indeed, David Lawton was pretty much a figure head as President of the Belle City Company with the real power devolving to the Vice-President–Frank Kellogg Bull.
In addition to serving as vice president of Belle City, Frank Bull was also serving as treasurer for the J.I. Case Threshing Machine Company, a major farm equipment manufacturing company which was also headquartered in Racine, Wisconsin on State Street. (Frank Kellogg Bull can be seen in his role as president of the J.I. Case Company on page 87 of Full Steam Ahead: J.I. Case Tractors and Equipment 1842-1955, by David Erb and Eldon Brumbaugh [American Society of Agricultural Engineers: St. Joseph, Missouri, 1993]). In today’s world, serving on the board of directors of two or more competing companies is called an interlocking directorate and would never be allowed. Officers and board members of corporations owe a duty of loyalty to the shareholders of the corporation. This duty requires them to put the interests of the corporation ahead of all other economic interests–even their own economic interests. In the law, such a duty is called a “fiduciary duty.” When an officer or director has an economic interest which conflicts with this fiduciary duty, he stands the risk of being sued by the shareholders of the corporation for a “breach” of his/her fiduciary duty.
In this case, Frank Bull owed a fiduciary duty to two corporations which were competitors serving the same market–J.I. Case and Belle City. Frank Bull had a clear conflict of interest. The shareholders of either corporation would be justified in asking which corporation was obtaining Frank Bull’s “best efforts.” Frank Bull’s conflict of interest was never so clear as when Belle City made a major policy decision in 1893.
When Belle City began production of grain threshers in 1893, they did so with the small, stationary “Columbia” thresher. The company could have entered the market producing large threshers or they could have produced a full line of threshers of all sizes. However, Belle City confined itself to the small thresher market. They did so “with the blessing of J.I. Case Company” according to John H. Jones, a Belle City employee writing in a company memorandum. (As noted below, John H. Jones would later become Vice President of the Belle City Manufacturing Company in the post-World War I era.)
Case had decided to avoid the concentrate on the the less profitable small thresher market and keep to the production of large threshers. At this time, the large thresher market was regarded as the more lucrative market than the small thresher market. Channelling, Belle City toward the small thresher market would eliminate another potential competitor for Case in the large thresher market–the market that Case wanted dominate
No doubt Frank Bull had a hand in guiding Belle City in making this decision and no doubt Frank Bull was the communicator (possibly the originator) of the “blessing” granted to Belle City, by Case, regarding this decision. He was an officer in both corporations and served on the board of directors of both corporations. One might have wondered at the time, without the benefit of hindsight, whether the Belle City Corporation was best served by this decision. Perhaps it might not have been in the best interests of the Belle City Company to be restricted from competing directly against Case by producing a full line of threshers of all sizes, including large threshers. Belle City’s relative smallness and efficiency as a corporation, compared with the J.I. Case Company, might have made Belle City a “lean and mean” competitor for Case in the production of large threshers.
Over the years, Belle City developed a reputation for producing a very fine thresher design. Indeed, this reputation has continued to this day. Doug Hager and Dwight Yaeger, who have restored and currently operate threshers of nearly all major manufacturers at the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Show located in rural LeCenter, Minnesota, find that the restored Belle City threshers they operate at the annual Pioneer Power Show held on the last full weekend of August of each year seem to, consistently, do the best job of threshing grain at the Show each year.
Given Belle City’s ability to consistently produce efficient and well running machines and the stream-lined corporate structure of the Belle City Company itself, one might have wondered what would happened if the Belle City Manufacturing Company had been allowed to become a competitor of the J.I. Case Company in the production of large threshers. The average shareholder in the Belle City Company may have felt this decision to restrict the Belle City Company to the production of small cheated the company out of potentially high profits which it might have had in the large thresher market–a decision made by board members who also were deciding policy at the J. I. Case Company. This type of corporate policy led to less competition and more monopolization of markets by a by a few corporations. No wonder, then, that a cry of protest went up which resulted in the United States Congress declaring such interlocking directorates illegal under Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914. (Louis B. Schwartz, John J. Flynn and Harry First, Antitrust [Foundation Press: Mineola, N.Y. 1983] p. 214.)
However, the 1890s was still the time of unbridled, foot-loose, free-wheeling capitalism. Consequently, Frank Bull’s position on the board of J.I. Case was looked upon as an advantage for the Belle City Manufacturing Company when it really was not. However, the decision to limit Belle City to the production of small threshers would, ironically, come back to haunt the J.I. CaseCompany when in the 1920s the demand for small threshers would outstrip the demand for large threshers and, suddenly, the small thresher market became the lucrative market and the large thresher market receded.
This is a picture of the workforce of the Belle City Manufacturing Company taken in the 1880s. The workforce in the 1880s was quite small because the Belle City Corporation was still in its pre-1893 condition–before the corporation had started making threshers.
This picture is a very good quality picture. However, it was printed without its original caption. Accordingly, below, is the complete original caption for this picture taken from another source. This original caption is valuable because it identifies nearly every person in the picture. However, the caption was attached to a very poor quality photo, which prevented that copy of the picture from being used in this article. Thus, here the original caption is reunited with a very clear copy of the picture.
As can be seen from the original caption below, both Frank K. Bull and David Lawton can be seen sitting front and center in the first row of a gathering of Belle City employees in a picture taken in the 1880s. (Frank K; Bull has a black hat on his head and sits between two men with white hats. The man with the white hat to the right of Frank Bull in the picture is David Lawton.) Additionally, to the left of Frank K. Bull in the front row, L.D. Jones, Louis Emory (L.E.) Jones and Robert Reisman are seen in the photo. All of these men are mentioned elsewhere in the body of this article.
Following the 1893 decision to start making threshers, Belle City relocated it factory site to an 11-acre site bordered by DeKoven Avenue, Racine Street 17th Avenue and Junction Street in Racine. On most occasions this site is called the 17th Avenue and Junction Street because the offices of the factory were located on the corner of 17th and Junction Street. This new factory site contained modern brick buildings which would become Belle City’s foundry, blacksmith shops and machine shops. Power on the site was provided by a huge 60 horsepower Peerless engine supplied with steam by an 80 horsepower boiler. In addition, the site was served by a spur to both the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad (nicknamed the Milwaukee Road) and the Chicago Northwestern Railroad.
In 1893, the Belle City Company began its manufacture of the newly introduced Columbia threshers by building 25 machines for the mass market. By 1896, Belle City was building and selling 175 to 200 Columbia threshers per year for the small thresher market. Belle City also expanded its farm product line to include truck and feed carts, horsepower treadmills, root cutters, adjustable harrows, and hay forks. The company was using over a quarter of a million board feet and its monthly payroll was in excess of $4,000.
In 1895, David Lawton stepped down as president of the Belle City Manufacturing Company, so as to devote more time to his own proprietorship of the Flour and Feed Store located at 519 5th Avenue in Racine. Frank K. Bull, cut back his responsibilities at the J. I. Case Company to take over the presidency of Belle City.
In 1909, the International Harvester Company (IHC), who did not have a thresher of its own, entered the thresher market for the first time by purchasing the rights to sell Belle City threshers. This was the start of a beneficial relationship for both companies, with Belle City becoming the beneficiary of the huge IHC network of more than 500 dealers and agents. Meanwhile, IHC was able to immediately market a line of threshers which already had a growing reputation with threshermen as being well-built and efficient threshers. In 1910, Belle City manufactured five different sizes of threshers (20 x 32, 24 x 40, 32 x 52, 36 x 52 and 36 x 56) under the brand name of New Racine. Upon signing this contract with Belle City, IHC instantly became the primary marketer of this entire line of small threshers. This emphasis on the small thresher would place Belle City, and thus IHC, in a very favorable market position as the First World War came to a close and the small gasoline-powered tractor made its appearance on North American farms.
Some time during the period prior to the First World War, the Belle City Manufacturing Company employed a young bookeeper for their front office. This person was George Andrew Nelson. Although it was not immediately apparent, the hiring of George Andrew was to prove very significant to the history of the Belle City Company.
George was the son of Niels P. and Marie M. (Hanson) Nielson. George’s father, Niels Peter Nielson had been born in Denmark on April 6, 1868 and had migrated to the United States in 1890 at the age of 22 years,. Like many young immigrants, Niels Peter was searching for a new and better life in the New World. Arriving in New York City, Niels immediately moved west to the rich agricultural land of the frontier, eventually settling in Cass County, Iowa. (Somewhere along the process of setting in the new country, the family name was changed from “Neilson” to “Nelson.” Likewise, Niels Peter shortened his first name to “Nels.”)
Settling in the small town of Atlantic, (1890 pop. 4,351) the county seat of Cass County, Nels Peter employed his skills as a shoemaker and opened his own shop in the town. Atlantic was a booming railroad town served by the Chicago, Rock Island and PacificRailroad (nicknamed the Rock Island Line“). The town had experienced rapid growth since its founding in 1868. The population of Atlantic had grown by 18.8% in the 1880s, the decade before Nels had moved to town and would grow by another 16.0% in the decade of the 1890s. New families were settling in Atlantic every day.
In 1892 another Danish family arrived in Atlantic. A daughter of this family was named Marie M. Hanson. Nels met this young woman at the local Lutheran Church. He was immediately struck by this pretty young woman and they fell in love. Nels and Marie were married in January of 1893 and purchased a house located at 704 Olive Street in Atlantic. On December 8 of that same year, the couple had their first child, a son, George Andrew. Later, on March 27, 1896, a daughter, Lydia M. Nelson was born to the family and still later, on February 19, 1901 another daughter, Clara E. Nelson was born to the family living at 704 Olive Street.
However, the booming economy that Atlantic, Iowa, had been experiencing ended abruptly with the start of the new century. Hard economic times hit the small city of Atlantic, Iowa, starting with stock market crisis called the “Panic of 1901.” The Panic had been initiated by the titanic struggle between railroad magnates James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railway and Edward H. Harriman of the Union Pacific and Illinois Central railroads, for control of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Although, Atlantic, Iowa was served by the Rock Island Line which had no connection with the railroads involved in the fight between James J. Hill and Edward Harriman, the Panic had spread throughout the whole railroad sector of the economy and then spread to the national economy of the United States as a whole. For the first time since the city’s founding, Atlantic, Iowa, actually lost population–falling by 9.6% in the decade between 1900 and 1910.
The residual economic recession created by the Panic of 1901 stretched on into 1902 and created financial hardship for Nels Peter and his family. Finally, the family was forced to give up their shoe making business and move from Atlantic altogether. The family moved to Racine, Wisconsin, (1900 pop. 29,102) and rented a house at 1705 West Sixth Street. Nels Peter opened a shoe store. Shortly after establishing themselves in Racine, the family was blessed by the arrival of another boy. On August 27, 1905, Valdemmar Emanuel Nelson, was born to Marie and Nels which completed the family.
For Nels, the job at the shoe store became unpredictable and during the First World War Nels Peter felt that he could make a better income by seeking work in the booming war industries. Consequently, he obtained a job working for the Ajax Rubber Company. This job allowed the family to move from the rented house at 1705 West Sixth Street into a home of their own at 1614 Quincy Avenue. However, he soon found that he was having trouble with his lungs as a result of the atomosphere inside the rubber factory and he had to quit the job and return to the shoe store.
Racine, Wisconsin, was an important hub of the industrial and manufacturing belt of the United States. The Belle City Manufacturing Company was jusr one of the manufacturing companies operating in Racine. Ever since the Company, began manufacturing stationary threshers, the Company’s Belle City and New Racine threshers had become renowned for high quality and efficient threshers of grains and edible beans. The Belle City Company also sought to expand its line of agricultural implements by manufacturing stationary silo fillers, feed choppers and other agricultural implements.
At this period of time the upper management of Belle City tended to be a family affair. On September 16, 1880, Frank K.. Bull had married Arabella (Belle) Jones, who so happened to be the sister of Louis Emery Jones–who had been serving as the secretary/treasurer since the founding of the company in 1882. Frank Bull was still serving as the President of the Company, still looking for someone to take over the presidency of the Company. However, by 1916 he had stepped aside for his son-in-law, John Reid Jr. to become President. On October 11, 1911, John Reid had been lucky enough to marry Jeanette Adelaide Bull, the only daughter of Frank K. Bull. This was not the end of the family connections within the Belle City Manufacturing Company.
When Frank K. Bull stepped up to the presidency of the Belle City Manufacturing Company to replace David Lawton in 1895, a vacancy in the office of vice-president of the Company was created. John H. Jones, was chosen to fill that vacancy and become the new vice-president of the Company. John H. Jones was first new officer of the Belle City Manufacturing Company who was not an officer at the time of the founding of the Company in 1882. He was also a member of family of the Jones family–the family of Louis Emery Jones, the current secretary/treasurer of the Company and the family of Arabella (Jones) Bull–Frank Bull’s own wife. Needless to say, Frank Bull did have a substantial influence on the choice of his own successor in the position of vice-president and he turned to his own extended family for that successor. Nor was this the only time that he would seek family members to fill positions at the Company.
On November 29, 1913, the long time secretary/treasurer at the Company–Louis Emery (L.E.) Jones, suddenly died at the age of 59 years. Without a wife and/or children Louis Emery Jones had really devoted his whole life to the Belle City Manufacturing Company. The Company recognized that the rising tide of sales of threshing machines had spurred the Company to tremendous growth. Finding someone to replace the late L.E. Jones would be a rather difficult task given the growth of the Company. Accordingly, the Company decided to take this opportunity to separate the combined position of secretary/treasurer into two independent offices. To fill the now inedependent position of corporate treasurer Frank K. Bull urged the Belle City Company to turn to 40 year-old Milton Maldwyn Jones, the youngest brother of the deceased Louis Emery Jones.
To fill the new independent position of secretary, the Company chose long-time employee–Walter John Tostevin. Walter Tostevin had first been employed at the Company since January 7, 1887 when he was hired as a clerk at the age of 19 years. In 1894 Walter was promoted to shipping clerk and in 1914 he became the traffic Manager at the Company.
As the new independent treasurer of the Belle City Company, Milton M. Jones was in charge of hiring of new bookkeepers and accountants. In one of his first hires after becoming treasurer in 1913, Milton M. Jones made what appeared to be a routine hire of an assistant bookkeeper. This new employee was 20-year old George Andrew Nelson. Although the significance of this hire was not immediately first apparent, the importance of George Andrew to the Belle City Company would soon become clear.
Previous to coming to work at Belle City, and shortly after moving to Racine, Wisconsin with his parents, the young 16-year old George Andrew Nelson also obtained a job as an office worker for an automobile factory in Racine. This was his apprenticeship–where he learned bookkeeping. Now as a worker at Belle City Manufacturing Company, George Andrew impressed his new boss–Milton M. Jones–with his ability to learn quickly and his persistence to thoroughly understand various features of the Company. Consequently, George Andrew was promoted to full bookkeeper in 1916. In time, George Andrew’s depth of knowledge of the entirety the Belle City Manufacturing Company was recognized by the other management of the Company and soon he was included in the wider management side of the Belle City Manufacturing Company.
After only a few years at work at the Belle City Company, the United States became involved in the First World War. George Andrew entered the U.S. Army on May 11, 1917. After training in boot camp as a part of the American Expeditionary Force (A.E.F.), George Andrew shipped out for France with the rest of the A.E. F. In France, George Andrew fought in every major battle in which the A.E.F. participated. Luckily, he survived this combat and was able to return to Racine folowing the armistice of November 11, 1918.
Back home in Racine, Wisconsin, George Andrew became aware that substantial changes had occurred on the home front during the war. Firstly, the departure of the A.E.F. left holes in the civilian work force. In large part, these vacancies were filled by the only large group of civilians left at home–women. Belle City, like most other employers, had previously, employed an all-male workforce. Even the stenography pool was all-male. However, with the shortage of employable male stenographers during the war, Belle City began employing women for their “steno pool.” One of their new stenographers hired in 1917, was Lucia C. Miller. Lucia was the youngest daughter of a long-time employee of the Belle City Company–William F. Miller. Although Lucia Miller had been born in Racine on March 30, 1893, both of her parents, William and Lucia (Goedeke) Miller had emmigrated from Germany separately, in 1869 and 1874, respectively. William Miller and Lucia Goedeke had met only after arriving in the United States and had married in 1879.
William Miller had been a machinist for many years in the machine shop located on the grounds of the Belle City Manufacturing Company. For years William and his family had lived in the big house at 1147 Geneva Street in Racine. However, as their family had grown up and moved out of the house, William and his wife Lucia (Goedeke) and young Lucia C. moved out of the house on Geneva Street in 1915 and moved into a more comfortable house at 1231 Milwaukee Street.
However, on January 7, 1917, William died at the age of 65 years of age leaving Lucia C. and her mother, also named Lucia, alone in their new house on Milwaukee Street. Times were hard at this time and required Lucia C. and her mother moved to a smaller house at 1322 Deane Street in Racine. In the midst of this retrenchment, that young Lucia C. started seeking work outside the home. Her search led her to the job as a stenographer at the Belle City Manufacturing Company. This new job allowed Lucia C. to not only support her mother and still allowed her to become more independent.
During the course of the recent war in, there had been no change in the upper management of the Belle City Manufacturing Company. Accordingly, John Reid Jr. was still President with John H. Jones as Vice president, Milton M. Jones continued as Treasurer, and Walter Tostevin was still the Secretary of the corporation. Consequently, the entire upper management of the Belle City Manufacturing Company had fond memories of George Andrew and his abilities. Accordingly, they welcomed him back as a returning veteran, to work for the Company. However, this time he was hired into the more lucrative and responsible position of purchasing agent for the Company.
While working as a stenographer at Belle City, Lucia C. Miller met and fell in love with George Andrew Nelson. They were married in about 1920. Together George Andrew and Lucia purchased a house at 1322 Deane Boulevard in Racine and set up housekeeping together.
Whereas, changes had not happened during his absence in Europe, George began to find many changes underway in the 1920s. In the early 1920s, the Company began a foray into development of a mechanical corn picking. Belle City was not alone in this attempt to develop a successful prototype of a mechanical corn picker. Indeed, nearly every farm machinery manufacturer was busy creating prototypes and attempting to make them work successfully. Finally, by 1929, Belle City was advertising itself as producing both “threshing and corn harvesting machinery.” (More discussion of Belle City’s research into and development of mechanical corn pickers follows in the second article in this two part series on the Belle City Company.)
Suddenly, in 1925, the young 46 year old president of the Belle City Manufacturing Company–John Reid unexpectedly died. To fill the vacancy left by his death, Frank K. Bull returned to the Company to assume the office of President on a temporary basis until a suitable candidate for the Presidency could be found. However, while the search was being conducted for a new president, Frank K. Bull himself died in 1927 at the age of 70 years. Eventaully, F. Lee Norton was chosen as an interim president of Belle City while the search for a permanent president continued. Walter J. Tostevin was moved from Secretary to the position of Vice President of the Company. After twelve years of having an independent Secretary and an independent Treasurer, the positions of Secretary and Treasurer were once again merged into the single position of Secretary/Treasurer. Despite his protests, the current Treasurer of the Company, Milton M. Jones, was appointed to this newly reconsolidated position. The Executive Board of the Belle City Manufacturing Company recognized that the new dual position of Secretary/Treasurer was more tha one person could handle and created a new position of Assistant Secretary/Treasurer. Milton Jones agreed to accept the responsibilities of the dual position of Secretary/Treasurer, provided that George Andrew Nelson be appointed to the new position of Assistant Secretary/Treasurer. As noted above, George Andrew had been serving as a purchasing agent for Belle City since his return from the world war. Yet his attentiion had always been drawn to the functioning of the corporation as a whole. Now he was promoted to a position with wider responsibility for the direction of the corporation as a whole rather than just one part of the corporation.
Since his return from the war, George had become aware of other changes that wer happening in the City of Racine, also. Racine’s first telephone exchange had been established by P. J. Tacy in 1879. At first their were only 24 subscribers to this service. By 1923 Belle City had obtained telephone service for their factory offices and was advertising that these offices on the corner of 17th Street and Junction Avenue, could be reached at number 109 on the telephone exchange. The number 109 probably indicates that the Belle City Manufacturing was the 109th customer to sign up for telephone service with the exchange located in Racine. Although the purchase of telephones for residential service would not take off until the 1940s, telephones for business applications was booming in during the 1920s.
Additionally, changes had occurred in farming across the nation. The most significant of these changes was the development the internal combustion engine as a means of power on the farms. Credit usually goes to Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr for design of the first internal combustion, engine-powered farm tractor. Soon after the Hart-Parr tractor was introduced to the farming public, many other farm machinery companies began to offer their own version of the internal combustion powered tractor. However, many of these early gasoline tractors were almost as bulky and expensive as steam powered engines. For example, the 1903 Hart-Parr Model 22-40 weighed 8½ tons, the IHC Type D weighed 14,000 pounds, and the Case Model 60 weighed 25,800 pounds.
The true revolution in tractor power did not come until 1916 when the 2700 pound Fordson tractor was introduced by Ford Motor Company.
The Fordson was much smaller and lighter than the behemoths being produced by other farm equipment companies, and Henry Ford offered the Fordson to the farming public at $890.00. This attractive price gave the small farmer a first real opportunity to be able to afford a gasoline-powered alternative to horses on the small family farm. Farmers put the little Fordson to work on a great number of farming tasks and sales grew like wildfire across the United States. In the post-war depression year of 1921, Henry Ford cut the price of his popular little Fordson by $165, to $625. (Lee Klanchner, Farmall Tractors [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1995] p. 21.) Originally, it was the 5,708 pound Titan 10-20 that was regarded as the “small tractor” for the “small farmer.” At $1,250, it was an attractive alternative to the much larger, pre-World War I gasoline-powered tractors. (Lee Klancher, International Harvester [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1996] p. 37.) Until 1921, IHC’s Titan 10-20 tractor was the most popular tractor in terms of sales. In 1921, 7,729 Titans would be sold to American farmers. However, in comparison with the Fordson, the Titan was still a large, bulky tractor with a high price tag. Furthermore, the Titan was difficult to start and operate. (See “Farming with a 10-20 Titan” at page 16 in the May/June 1996 Belt Pulley.) Consequently, the Fordson easily surpassed the Titan in sales in 1921, with 36,000 Fordsons produced that year–nearly five times the number of Titans sold that same year. Clearly, in the post World War I era, the future of farming belonged to the small tractor. This trend represented a revolution in the production of farm tractors, and also affected other farm machinery markets–for instance, the thresher market. Smaller tractors were unable to power the large threshers and farmers turned in droves to small thresher manufacturers, like Belle City.
As noted above, Belle City had been producing small threshers since they were founded, and this production continued on a limited basis through the First World War. Now, with the increasing sales of small tractors, Belle City threshers suddenly became popular products. In an ironic twist of fate, the very decision made in 1893, which steered Belle City out of the large thresher market and into small thresher production and intended to preserve for Case the bulk of the more profitable large thresher market, actually put Belle City in a better position than Case to meet the requirements of the new farm market following the war. Now it was Case that was scrambling to make changes in its threshers.
Besides selling its threshers for the United States domestic market, Belle City also did business in Mexico and South America. Belle City became a major employer in the city of Racine, and by 1916, at the beginning of the period of the boom, the company employed 175 workers.
Meanwhile, Belle City continued to improve its threshers: First, they added the Farmers Friend windstacker. In this improvement, Belle City was not alone. The Farmers Friend windstacker had been developed by the Indiana Manufacturing Company. (C.H. Wendel, Farm Equipment and Antiques, [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1996] p. 345.) After developing the air-blown, tube straw discharge system for threshers, the Indiana Manufacturing Company then licensed its new product to other thresher manufacturers. Being a substantial improvement over the straw elevator for stacking straw behind the threshing machines, the Farmers Friend windstacker soon became universal on threshers of all makes for the remainder of the threshing era.
Secondly, Belle City added self-feeders to their threshers. Prior to self-feeders, threshers were fitted with platforms near the mouth of the thresher where the operator would stand and receive bundles one at a time from the person on the wagon or on the stack. The operator would then cut the twine on the bundle and hand-feed the bundle into the thresher. (Hart-Parr/Oliver Collector readers will remember that a hand-fed thresher was used at the Steam Engine Joe Rynda Show held each year near Montgomery, Minnesota in the 1940s and 1950s. See “Build It and They Will Come,” in the Summer 1996 issue of Hart-Parr/Oliver Collector Vol. VII, No. II, p. 33.) Hand-feeding one bundle at a time was a slow, time-consuming process. The invention of the self-feeding mechanism for threshers was generally credited to the Wood Brothers Threshing Company of Des Moines, Iowa. Self-feeders would automatically cut the twine on the bundles and regulate the rate at which the bundles were fed into the thresher. It was another of those great improvements in thresher technology that would become universal on all threshers and remain a standard until the end of the threshing era. However, the name that would come to dominate the market in self-feeding mechanisms was the Hart Company.
The Hart Company also manufactured the third improvement in thresher design that became universalized on all threshers of whatever manufacture. Grain weighers were clam shell devices that sat atop the vertical clean grain elevator. The clean grain elevator would pour clean threshed grain into the clam shell bucket until a half-bushel had been weighed out. When the proper weight for the half-bushel had been reached, the clam shell would open and allow the grain to fall into the wagon elevator or the bagging attachment. Belle City followed suit in this trend also, and began installing the Hart grain weigher on all its threshers. Thus, by 1911, Belle City threshers sold to the public by IHC under the New Racine name were offered complete with the Farmer’s Friend windstacker, the Hart self-feeder and the Hart grain weigher.
J.I. Case made history in 1904 with the introduction of the first all-steel thresher. There was a reason for this: All-steel threshers were less of a fire hazard when used with a steam engine. Since Case’s line of large threshers required large horsepower demands which could only be supplied by steam power, it was natural that Case would seek the protection of an all-steel model thresher. Because smaller threshers tended to be powered by the somewhat less hazardous gasoline-powered tractors, there was a natural lag by the producers of small threshers in switching over to all-steel construction. Nonetheless, the producers of small threshers eventually became aware of the advantages of all-steel construction in terms of longer machine life, and eventually they ceased producing wooden threshers. In 1917, Belle City changed its New Racine thresher from an all-wood construction to a thresher with a wooden frame and sheet metal side pieces. In 1926, Belle City went to all-steel construction of all their threshers.
In 1926, IHC decided to manufacture its own line of threshers consisting of three models–20″ x 28,” 22″ x 36″ and 28″ x 42″. Aware, by this time, that the small thresher market was the only lucrative market, IHC offered no thresher larger than its 28″ x 42″ thresher. Indeed, the new IHC threshers bore a great deal of similarity to the Belle City New Racine threshers it had marketed prior to 1926; not the least of which was the new IHC threshers outfitted with Hart self-feeders and grain weighers, and the Farmers Friend windstacker manufactured under the license of the Indiana Manufacturing Company.
In 1926, the International Harvester Company (IHC) notified the Belle City Company that they would not be renewing the contract to purchase Belle City threshers as they had in been doing since 1909. Realizing they were losing the benefit of the large IHC dealer network, Belle City started making plans for some alternative to gain access to the entered into a joint venture arrangement with Ford to sell its Belle City/New Racine thresher through Ford dealerships. For a short time in 1926, Belle City experimented with the idea of expanding their line of farm machinery in an attempt to popularize the Belle City Company name with the farming public.
As noted above, the Company had been attempting to build their own mechanical corn picker. Now there was a new Consideration had been given to
Now Belle City was squarely on the Ford team. Their advertisements began to claim the “Belle City New Racine thresher was the universal thresher ideally matched to the Fordson–the universal tractor.” The name Fordson even appeared on Belle City threshers. During the period of time of the joint venture with Ford, Belle City continued to improve its little thresher by installing Timken roller bearings at 20 locations on the thresher.
Foe In 1926, and for a short time thereafter, Belle City sold its own tractor, which was really a conversion kit made to modify a Fordson into a crawler/track-tractor. (The Belle City tractor is pictured on the bottom of page 44 in the Encyclopedia of American Farm Tractors by C.H. Wendel [Crestline Books: Sarasota, Fl. 1979].) Unfortunately, the Trackpull tractor was not to prove to be a success for the Belle City Company.
By the mid-1920s, sales of the Fordson had dipped behind other, more modern small tractors. By 1928, all United States production of the Fordson tractor ceased. (Robert Pripps and Andrew Moreland, Ford Tractors [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc., 1990] p. 19.)
From 1929 thru 1933, the United States fell into the worst economic crisis in the history of the United States–the Great Depression. This economic depression swept through the entire business economy. Many businesses did not survive the calamities of the Great Depression. Belle City, their unofficial partner–the Ford Motor Company–and all other farm machine manufacturing companies were hard pressed by the Depression.
All companies were scrambling to find solutions that would allow them to the Depression. From 1929 to 1932, the Ford Motor Company transferred all production of the Fordson to their production facitiies in Cork, Ireland. Thus, all Fordson tractors sold in the United States during the period of time from 1929 thru 1932 were made in in Cork, Ireland. Today these Fordson tractors manufactured in Ireland can be identified by serial numbers that fall within the range of serial numbers from 757,369 through 779,135. (Michael Williams, Ford and Fordson Tractors, [Farming Press: Frome, England, 1985] p. 66.) In 1932, all Fordson production was transferred to the Ford factory at Dagenham, in the shire of Essex in England. All of these tractors from the Dagenham were painted dark blue with orange wheels. This color design remained consistent until 1938 when the entirely orange Fordson was produced. In 1939, the Ford/Ferguson 9N was introduced and quickly replaced the outdated Fordson in the United States. By September of 1939, Britain was once again at work with Germany. Production of the Fordson continued at Dagenham, England in order to meet the needs of British agriculture, now that Britain was at war. (These wartime Fordson tractors can be identified by their dark green color. ) Throughout all of these reorganizations of Fordson production, Belle City threshers remained the thresher “built for Fordson” and continued to be sold at Ford dealers.
Yet, as the decade of the 1930s progressed, the economy began to show signs of recovery and thanks in large part to the heavy advertising campaign conducted jointly by Belle City and the Ford Moter Company, the Belle City Manufacturing Company was able to sell its small threshers in sufficient numbers to allow for continued expansion of the company. In 1938, Belle City sold its factory site at DeKoven Avenue and Racine Street for $84,000 and purchased the old Ajax Tire Company site on Taylor Avenue.
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, while the United States was still trying to avoid involvement in the war in Europe, young Fred Gunther was a boy growing up in his parents’ home on Taylor Avenue near the Belle City factory. Fred remembers seeing train load after train load of threshers leaving the plant for farms all across the midwest.
On one particular day, one of those trains, containing a 28″ x 44″ Belle City thresher, rolled out of the Taylor Avenue factory and onto a Chicago Northwestern railroad flat-bed car where it was secured for a trip across Wisconsin to Minneapolis. After the flat-bed car with the thresher was joined to other railroad cars loaded with more Belle City threshers, the Chicago Northwestern train headed to Milwaukee. On its way out of town, it might have been noticed by young Fred Gunther. Once in Milwaukee, the railroad cars with the Belle City threshers were hooked to a train headed west to Minnesota while other car loads of freight continued north, up the Chicago Northwestern tracks to Door Peninsula, the summer vacation destination of many Chicagoans.
The train carrying this particular Belle City thresher passed through the gently rolling hills in the heartland of Wisconsin’s dairy industry, passing pasture after pasture of grazing Holsteins, Ayershires, Guernseys and Brown Swiss cattle, and crossing the Wisconsin River between the towns of Dellwood and Necedah. Crossing over the Mississippi River at Hudson, Wisconsin, the train entered Minnesota for the short journey to Minneapolis/St. Paul. There, the flat-bed cars carrying the Belle City threshers were taken to the spur at the Keegan Farm Equipment Co. of Minneapolis. Keegan’s was the “block house,” or main distributor, for Fordson tractors and other Ford farm equipment products servicing Ford dealers in small towns all across Minnesota. Belle City’s joint venture with Ford allowed Belle City to have access to its widespread dealer network. One of the Ford dealerships selling tractors in Minnesota prior to entry of the United States into the Second World War was the Frank Balek dealership of Lonsdale, Minnesota. This particular 28″ x 44″ thresher, which had been off-loaded at Keegans in Minneapolis, was eventually delivered to the Balek dealership on the south edge of the town of Lonsdale. Frank Balek, together with his son, Ray, who helped him in his dealership, had sold the thresher–the largest model ever made by Belle City–to an area farmer. Throughout the remaining period of peace, prior to United States involvement in the Second World War, the thresher was put to work threshing small grains, most likely as part of a neighborhood ring, where many farmers in the same neighborhood combined resources and labor at threshing time. During the Second World War, when farm commodity prices rose sharply, we can picture the 28″ thresher being employed more profitably than ever before, serving faithfully as part of the homefront in the war effort. Not long after the war, no doubt it was replaced by combines that individual farmers were buying.
Long after the 28″ Belle City thresher had been idly stored away and nearly forgotten in a shed, the thresher was purchased by Archie Babek of New Market, Minnesota. In the 1990s, the 28″ Belle City thresher was purchased by Wayne Svoboda and brought to the showgrounds of the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Association in rural LeCenter, Minnesota. Currently, the thresher resides indoors on the grounds in an unrestored condition. People attending the 1999 Show–to be held on August 27, 28 and 29–will be able to see the Belle City thresher as part of the permanent display of threshers. This will be a fitting exhibit, because in 1999 the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Association is hosting the 1999 National Summer Convention of the Ford Collectors Association, featuring the Fordson and Ford/Ferguson tractors.
Attempts have been made to have the thresher restored by Pioneer Power members Doug Hager, Dwight Yaeger and Mark Meyer of Good Thunder, who have restored many of the operating threshers on the showgrounds. It is hoped that in the not too distant future restoration can be completed and the machine made a part of the field demonstrations at future shows–a fitting tribute to the little company from Racine, Wisconsin, that pioneered in development of the small thresher.
with the assistance of
Del Gendner of Grand Prairie, Texas
Joe Thome of Racine, Wisconsin
Bob S. McFarland of Sauk City, Wisconsin
Ed Mortensen of Racine, Wisconsin
Gary Oechsner of Fon-du-Lac, Wisconsin
As published in the July/August 1999 issue of Belt Pulley Magazine
This article remains under construction. Periodically, blocks of new text and media (pictures) may appear and/or the current blocks of text will appear modified or corrected with new information.
(NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Brian Wells relates to us that he was able to write the history of the Belle City Company only with the help of the reading public of the Belt Pulley magazine. Thus, this is the first truly “interactive article” Brian has written. We hope this trend will continue and grow. As you know, Brian has been attempting to write an article on the Wood Brothers Threshing Company of Des Moines, Iowa. He is also doing some research on the Rosenthal Cornhusker Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin and the Electric Wheel Company of Quincy, Illinois. He would appreciate any material on the corporate history of any of these companies.)
At two stages during its history as a farm machine manufacturer, the Belle City Manufacturing Company of Racine, Wisconsin enjoyed a network of sales outlets. From 1909 until 1926, Belle City licensed the International Harvester Company to sell Belle City and New Racine threshers, which were made by the Belle City Company. This opened up the entire IHC sales network to Belle City. However, in 1926, IHC termiinated the contract with Belle City and started making their own line of McCormick-Deering threshers. The termination of the contract left Belle City without an effective outlet for its threshers. To be sure, Belle City had been selling some threshers to the tractor division of the Ford Motor Company during the 1920s. However, now with the termination of the IHC contract, Belle City sought to double down on their efforts to get into a closer relationship with Ford. This effort proved successful and, thus, Belle entered into a period of there history which historians have labelled the “Golden Age of the Belle City Manufacturing Company.”
All through the 1930s, the Belle City Company enjoyed access to the farm equipment market through the distribution and dealership network of the tractor division of the Ford Motor Company. However, with the introduction of the new Ford/Ferguson 9N in 1939, Ford gravitated toward the Woods Brothers Threshing Company of Des Moines, Iowa. Woods Bros., of course, manufactured the famous “Humming Bird” thresher which was offered in the 21″ x 36″, 26″ x 46″, 28 x 46″ and 30″ by 50″ sizes. (Robert N. Pripps and Andrew Moreland, Threshers [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1992] p. 122.) These threshers covered the entire gambit of the small thresher market, and Ford had no further need of the joint venture with Belle City. Thus, after 1938, Belle City was on its own, and had to start advertising independent of Ford.
At first, Belle City suffered from the lack of the dealership network which it had enjoyed under its contract with IHC during the 1920s and with Ford during the 1930s. Fortunately, however, Belle City had insisted that the slogan “Belle City Built” appear on all its threshers sold by Ford and International Harvester Company. Thus, farmers had become so familiar with seeing that slogan on its threshers that, both during the contract with IHC prior to 1926 and during the joint venture with Ford, farmers began to insist that their threshers be stamped “Belle City Built” if their new thresher had slipped through manufacture without that slogan stenciled on the sides. Consequently, by 1939, when the company had to go it alone as far as advertising, sales, and distribution, Belle City had already succeeded in becoming somewhat of a household name with farmers in the upper midwest.
Note that the advertising literature above indicates that the Belle
City Company was building an entire line of farm machines which the Company was offering to the farming public. Among the advertising possibilities for Belle City was the Wisconsin State Fair held on a 200-acre site in West Allis, Wisconsin. In the years just prior to the Second World War, the Wisconsin State Fair consisted largely of tents. There were very few permanent structures. However, it was a very popular event with Continue reading The Belle City Manufacturing Company (Part II)→
The evening milking was all done and the family had eaten their supper. In the farm house on the hill overlooking the snow-covered fields of western Fillmore County in southeastern Minnesota in January of 1948, Howard and Ethel Hanks sat down with their eldest son Fred to review their farming operation and to make plans for the coming spring. As related elsewhere (See “The Case NCM and a Family’s Crucial Year” in the January/February 1995 issue of Belt Pulley, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 31. and the article on the Ford/Ferguson 2N in the January/February 1998 issue of Belt Pulley Vol. 12, No. 1.), 1947 had been a critical year for the Hanks family. The spring of 1947 had started with such miserable prospects and had gotten worse as the year progressed because of the unrelenting rain. However, in July the rains had stopped and the rest of the year was almost perfect. As a consequence, the Hanks family had gotten all their crops harvested before the snow started falling on the evening of November 14, 1947.
Now in mid-January 1948, as the family gathered around the table discussing the upcoming year, the short winter day had ended and it was already dark. Howard lit a lantern and placed it on the table. (Rural Electric Association (REA) service would not reach this area of Beaver Township in Fillmore County until February of 1949). The family realized that their financial position was somewhat more secure than it had been in the previous year, thanks both to the weather and the gamble the family had taken in purchasing a Case NCM baler to perform some custom baling. As noted in a previous article (January/February 1998 issue of Belt Pulley Vol. 12, No. 1.), the baler had been purchased together with a Ford/Ferguson 2N and a series of accompanying Ford/Ferguson implements.
The Hanks family and Howard and Ethel’s, son-in-law Wayne Wells, had used the 2N and the Case baler to augment their farm income through custom baling of hay and straw in the neighborhood. Howard and Ethel’s 11-year-old son John had driven the 2N around and around many a hay field in the neighborhood. The used Ford\Ferguson 2N and the Case NCM baler that they had purchased in the spring of 1947 had really saved the family from financial ruin. The 2N was a good match for the Case NCM baler in terms of the proper slow speeds for the field. Furthermore, the addition of the Sherman step-up auxiliary unit to the transmission had meant that the little tractor would waste less time in moving the baler and hay racks around the neighborhood, helping the Hanks family complete all the custom baling that the family had contracted that year.
Now, as Howard, Ethel and Fred sat by the kitchen table, they realized that they would need to do a good deal of custom baling again in 1948 to further consolidate their economic position on the farm. They looked at the potential manpower that they would have available for custom baling and they also looked at their current farm equipment. Although there had been substantial changes in the family over the last year, with three marriages in a single year (Bruce Hanks in April, Lorraine (Hanks) Westfall in June and Marilyn (Hanks) Wells in July), one strong point remained in favor of the Hanks family: the number of people available to help out in the busy summer season. On this particular night in January, Howard and Ethel’s youngest daughter, Hildreth, was not in the house. Currently, she was involved in school activities as a member of the LeRoy High School Cardinal annual staff which involved many meetings after school hours. Hildreth intended to join her brother Bruce at the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago in the fall of 1948. In the interim, however, Hildreth would be available to help the family for the summer.
Wayne Wells, who had originally proposed the idea of purchasing the Case NCM baler to his brothers-in-law Fred and Bruce Hanks, was now farming on his parents’ farm two miles to the west of the Hanks farm. He had owned 1/3 interest in the baler and the Ford/Ferguson 2N tractor together with Fred and Bruce. He had cooperated with the Hanks family during baling season and also with the custom baling they did in 1947 and would do so again in the coming year.
Besides Fred, young John, and son-in-law Wayne Wells, Howard and Ethel’s second son Bruce would be available during the month of August. While Bruce’s course of study at Moody occupied the entire year, the month of August was summer vacation. Bruce and Mary intended to return to the farm in LeRoy in August of 1948 and for each year after until Bruce graduated. Therefore, Bruce would also be available to help out on the farm for one very busy month of the summer season.
Additionally, the Hanks family knew they would probably have to hire some help just as they had in 1947. Accordingly, the family assumed that they would again be hiring Keith Hall, Billy Blade and some other high school age boys from the town of LeRoy to help out at different times during the year when the workload was the heaviest.
In a review of their farm machinery, the Hanks family began considering the little 2N tractor. While the Ford\Ferguson 2N had served the family well in the previous year, the little gray tractor did have its imperfections. One of the most striking shortcomings of the Ford 2N which was noted by the Hanks family was the awkward arrangement of its operator foot brake pedals. As pointed out in a previous article (January/February 1998 issue of Belt Pulley Vol. 12, No. 1.), the Ford Company designed their tractors to have a low center of gravity. While this was an appealing feature, especially where farming was conducted on steep, hilly fields, the low center of gravity was obtained by having the operator of the tractor straddle the power train, with one foot on the right side and one foot on the left side of the transmission. Like the Ford/Ferguson 9N which had preceded the 2N in production, in addition to the left-side brake pedal being located on the left side of the tractor, the foot clutch of the 9N and 2N was also located on the left side of the tractor. For sharp left turns from a dead stop, the operator was already using his left foot to release the clutch and therefore could not engage the left brake to aid in a turn. This was a definite disadvantage when pulling the manure spreader in the cow yard and positioning it near the barn for loading from the manure carrier, when backing any farm wagons or other farm implements around the yard, or when making sharp turns in the fields while cultivating corn or beans. Additionally, although the Model 2N had been equipped with the auxiliary Sherman Step-Up transmission, the little three-speed transmission was still out of date.
In the fall and winter months of 1947-1948, Fred was attracted by information about the new Ford tractor–the Model 8N, which had just been introduced. Models of the new red and gray Ford 8N had been on display at Regan’s, the local Ford car and tractor Continue reading The Family’s First New Tractor: The Ford 8N→
The Rockwood Pulley Company of Indianapolis, Indiana: Manufacturer of Paper Pulleys
As published in the March/April 1997 issue of
Belt Pulley Magazine
They are everywhere at threshing shows, just as they used to be everywhere on farms: on threshing machines, corn shredders, hammer mills, ensilage cutters, and tractors. Seldom are they really noticed, but they make everything work smoothly. They are, as the advertisements used to say, the “pulleys that grip while others slip.” (See the 1938 Rockwood advertisement on page 113 of Threshers, by Robert Pripps and Andrew Moreland [Motorbooks International Publishers: Osceola, Wis. 1992]). They are Rockwood paper pulleys.
They were commonly called “paper pulleys” because of the heavy fibrous material that was wrapped around the metal core of the pulley. This fibrous material was made by a process identical to that of manufacturing paper, except that the raw material being used was straw. Because of their ability to grip, paper pulleys were a technological leap over the wooden and steel pulleys that were first used in flat belt applications like threshing machines.
Although over the years (since the first appearance of paper pulleys on the North American farm scene) other companies would enter the field of manufacturing paper pulleys, it was nonetheless Rockwood Manufacturing Company that developed the first paper pulley. Rockwood so dominated the paper pulley market, that the terms “Rockwood pulley” and “paper pulley” were often used interchangeably.
Like so many companies, the Rockwood Manufacturing Company began as the dream of a single person. William O. Rockwood was born to Rev. Elisha and Susannah Rockwood of Westboro (Westborough), Massachusetts. Elisha was a doctorate of divinity graduate of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. Upon graduation, he became the minister for the parish of Westborough, a post he would hold for 27 years. His wife, Susannah Brigham (Parkman) Rockwood, was the daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Parkman, who had been the first minister of the same Westborough parish. Together, they saw to it that their young son, William O. Rockwood, obtained a good education, enrolling him in Leicester and Amherst Academies, and then entering him at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut. William O., however, rebelled against the ministry, the path laid out for him by his parents. He had a love of the sea. Accordingly, after two years at Yale, he signed on to a sailing vessel bound for Savannah, Georgia, at which port the ship would be loaded with cotton and would sail for Liverpool, England. Upon his return to Massachusetts, he stayed for a while with his parents. On June 4, 1836, William’s mother died. This was a shock to the young man and set him on a different course in life. Continue reading Rockwood Pulley Company of Indianapolis Indiana→
Belt Pulley Magazine Articles by Brian Wayne Wells