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Wood Brothers Company (Part II)

The Wood Bros. Company (Part II):

The Model WB-1-P Cornpicker


Brian Wayne Wells

with the assistance of

Gary Oechsner of Fond-du-Lac, Wisconsin

Clarence L. Goodburn of Madelia, Minnesota

Alan C. King of Radnor, Ohio

            Charles R. Durham of Brainerd, Minnesota


Hugh Hash of Sparta, North Carolina

By 1928, the Wood Bros. Thresher Company appeared to be at the top of its form, and its future looked even brighter.  Having successfully overcome a few challenges in its recent history (the disastrous fire of 1917, another fire–although somewhat less disastrous–in 1926, and a change of factory locations in 1926), production of threshing machines was at a new all-time high.  Franz L. Wood presided over a company that was the largest, single industrial project between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains, with his brother Robert L. serving as treasurer.  The company produced enough threshers that year, such that 200 threshers were delivered aboard a single train to its branch house in Fargo, North Dakota.  Yet, just when everything appeared to be at its best, the greatest disasters befell.  Already in 1928, warning signs were out which too many people would ignore, pointing to a major economic cataclysm just ahead.  The effects of this period of economic stress would have a tremendous impact on the Wood Bros. Thresher Company.

Despite the debt that the company had accrued in its move in 1926 to the new location at 1700 E. Aurora Avenue, and despite objections from his brother and other people within the company, Franz was able to divert some of the resources from the sale of threshers into building combine harvesters.  Franz correctly foresaw that combine harvesters were the wave of the future that would eventually replace the stationary thresher/separator on all United States farms.  He wanted to position the company securely in the new combine market before thresher sales started to decline in favor of the new combines.  It was a bold plan that promised to assure the future prospects of the company.

In 1929, Wood Bros. marketed its first model combine harvester/thresher.  Three models of the new combine, with its unique overshot-type cylinder and fork-type impeller feeder, were offered to the public–a model with a 12-foot cutter bar, a model with a 16-foot cutter bar, and a model with a 20-foot cutter bar.  Furthermore, the company made plans to boost combine production to 1,000 machines in 1930.  The company, borrowing more money from the bank for the increase in production, suddenly found that the total debt on the bonds they still had left to pay together with the new loan they had just taken out added up to $950,000.00. Continue reading Wood Brothers Company (Part II)

The Wood Brothers Company (Part I)

The Wood Bros. Company (Part I)


Brian Wayne Wells

                                                            with the assistance of

Gary Oechsner of Fond-du-Lac, Wisconsin

Clarence L. Goodburn of Madelia, Minnesota

                    Alan C. King of Radnor, Ohio


Hugh Hash of Sparta, North Carolina

 As published in the January/February 2001 issue of

Belt Pulley Magazine

In 1831, when Hiram and John Pitts developed the first threshing machine, bundles of grain had to be fed by hand into the thresher.  Until the process of harvesting grain was mechanized in the late nineteenth century, hand-feeding of bundles into a thresher created a real bottleneck.  Hand-feeding required a worker to stand at the front of the thresher to receive each bundle from another worker on the bundle wagon or stack.  Then he had to cut the twine on the bundle and feed the bundle into the thresher.  The threshing process could go no faster than the worker feeding the bundles into the thresher.  Furthermore, hand-feeding of bundles was a dangerous job:  once the bundle was fed, the rapidly spinning cylinder tended to “snatch” the bundle out of the hands of the person feeding the bundle.  The person’s hands were only a short distance away from the cylinder and in danger of serious injury.  There was also the danger of foreign materials getting into the cylinder and being thrown back up into the face of the person feeding the bundles.  Consequently, there was a real need to develop some device that would eliminate the need for a person in this dangerous position and that would considerably speed up the threshing process.  In the middle 1880s, just such a device was under experimentation on a South Dakota farm owned by the Wood family.

An old Buffalo-Pitts thresher.


South Dakota was, in the 1880s, in the middle of a boom period, as the effects of the Panic of 1873 had subsided by 1878.  They were showing signs of becoming a great wheat producing state, and settlers were moving in from Minnesota and other points to the east.  (Herbert S. Schell, History of South Dakota, [University of Neb. Press: Lincoln, 1975] pp. 158-174.)  There were growing pains, of course, and emotional debates would break out over a great number of issues.  One such instance was the six-year “Spink County War” which broke out in 1878 over the issue of whether the county seat should be located in the town of Ashton or the town of Redfield.

A road map of Spink County showing the locations of the towns of Redfield and Ashton the object of the Spink County War.


This dispute eventually led in an armed mob of 300 citizens of Ashton in 1884 marching on Redfield to demand the return of county records which had been forcibly removed from Ashton by Redfield citizens.  As a consequence, two companies of territorial militia had to be dispatched from Fargo to Spink County to dispell the conflict.  However, by the time the militia arrived, the tense situation had eased.  (Ibid. p. 204.)  Nonetheless, boundless optimism was in the air in South Dakota. Anything seemed possible, and this feeling attracted young men from all over the United States.  Among the young farm families immigrating into South Dakota in the spring of 1885 was the Wood family.

A map of South Dakota showing the location of Spink County.


Originally from Marlboro, Massachusetts, the Wood family consisted of the parents and two daughters–Susan (born in 1855) and Clara (born in 1858).  Sometime in the late 1850s or early 1860s, the family moved from Massachusetts and settled in Freemont Township in what would become Winona County in the southeastern corner of Minnesota.  While living in Freemont Township, two sons were born–Robert L. (on August 31, 1861) and Franz John (on March 7, 1864)–thereby completing the family.  In the spring of 1885, the Wood family learned of free land available for settling in South Dakota.  Thus, they moved there and settled on a piece of land in the extreme southeastern corner on the state in Spink County on the border with Hand County.  Later that same year, Franz Wood took “pre-emption” on a plot of land for himself a short distance away and Robert also took a claim on yet another plot of land.  (Later, Robert would use his land as collateral when he went to Huron to get a loan in order to buy two identical mules–Jack and Jinnie.)

The summer of 1886 was a busy one for the Wood family, but they also made time to socialize with their neighbors.  They helped organize the Turtle Creek baseball team, with Robert chosen as captain.  Also, in 1886, Robert and Franz Wood purchased a straw-burning, 12-horsepower Case traction steam engine and a hand-feeding Case 36″ x 58″ thresher and began a custom threshing business operating from their parents’ farm.  Moving from farm to farm in the neighborhood, they supplemented their farm income with this business.

A Case steam engine like the one used by the Wood Bros. on their threshing tour around South Dakota in 1886.


Over the next couple of years, the brothers became intimately aware of the problems inherent with hand-fed threshers.  Thus, they set about developing a self-feeding mechanism.  In the optimistic enthusiasm that was part of the atmosphere of South Dakota during this time, the young men believed that they could invent  a feeding mechanism that would speed the process of threshing and make it safer.  At the end of the harvesting season in 1889, Franz purchased a blacksmith’s forge, hammer and tongs, as well as an old claim shanty to house his new shop.  All during the fall and winter of 1889-1890, he worked on the new self-feeder.  When it was completed, the new self-feeder was tested on their own Case 36″ thresher in the summer of 1890.  Unfortunately, it proved to be a disappointment and broke under the stress after just 10 minutes of operation.

After many attempts, the Wood Brothers finally struck upon a successful design and went into production with their own self-feeder.  This is a 1905 advertisement of the Wood Bros. Company self feeder.


Not to be deterred, Franz began again to build another feeder made from stronger steel.  In order to have important castings properly made, Franz traveled back to Freemont, Minnesota, where he had been born, to have his cousin’s husband, Arthur Craine, a local blacksmith, work on the self-feeder with him.  While in eastern Minnesota working on the self-feeder, Franz traveled to another blacksmith shop in Rushford, where he worked on the self-feeder most of the winter. Continue reading The Wood Brothers Company (Part I)

Belle City Manufacturing Company (Part I)

The Belle City Manufacturing Company (Part I)


Brian Wayne Wells

  with the assistance of

Del Gendner of Grand Prairie, Texas

Joe Thome of Racine, Wisconsin

Bob S. McFarland of Sauk City, Wisconsin

Ed Mortensen of Racine, Wisconsin


Gary Oechsner of Fond-du-Lac, Wisconsin

 As published in the May/June 1999 issue of

Belt Pulley Magazine

Belle City logo and sign from 1930.

(NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: Brian Wells relates to us that this is a significant article in one very important way: It is the first truly “interactive article” he has written. Brian says that this article could not have been written without the help of Belt Pulley readers who responded to requests for information on the Belle City Company. When all of his usual sources–local public libraries, local and state historical societies–had failed him in his pursuit of information on this company, only the responses from readers made this article possible. Thus, Belt Pulley has becomes a forum of two-way communication–an interactive magazine. We hope this trend will continue and grow. As noted in our last issue, Brian has been attempting to write an article on the Wood Brothers Threshing Company of Des Moines, Iowa. Once again, a search of his usual sources has yielded very little information. Brian relates that he has received some calls and letters from readers with good information; however, he is still looking for material on the corporate history of the Wood Brothers Company.)

The company that became known as the Belle City Manufacturing Company was the result of an 1882 merger of two separate commercial entities.  These business entities were the David Lawton Company and the Racine Brake Company.  Both of these corporations wered located in Racine, Wisconsin.

In 1878, David Lawton was already the owner of a successful flour, feed and implement store in Racine, Wisconsin (1870 pop. 9,880), when he started a manufacturing concern called the David Lawton Company. The company was first located at 300 Fourth Street in Racine where it began manufacturing feed cutter for the growing Midwest farm market. The feed cutter, or ensilage and fodder cutter, was a small machine, about the size of a typical fanning mill, made of wood, with a long elevator attached to the rear of the machine which could raise the chopped ensilage up into the barn or silo. (An 1886 advertisement for a feed cutter shows it being powered by a two-horse treadmill. One of these Belle City machines is owned by Paul Coussens of South Bend, Indiana. Paul and his son, Daniel, are currently attempting to restore this very early product of the Belle City line of farm machinery.  Although the Paul and Daniel Coussens feed cutter was made after the 1882 merger and, thus, is. technically, a “Belle City Company” feed cutter, the Coussens feed cutter bears many design features that reveal its heritage as a descendant of the feed cutter made by the David Lawton Company.

An advertisement of Belle City threshers, dating from 1902, which also shows the Belle City ensilage cutter.  This feed cutter came to Belle City from the David Lawton Company as a result of the 1882 merger which formed the Belle City Manufacturing Company.  Accordingly, the Belle City feed cutter shown here probably shares much with its earlier predecessor the David Lawton Company feed cutter.

The other business entity that was part of the 1882 merger with the David Lawton Company was the Racine Brake Company.  The main product of the Racine Brake Company was a wagon braking system that could be mounted was the various models of horse-drawn wagons that were being made in the 1880’s.

This picture shows the brake shoes and pads attached to a rock shaft which rotates and forces the brake shoes and pads against the rear wheels of the wagon when the teamster/operator applies the brakes.

Following the 1882 merger, the Belle City Manufacturing Company was incorporated under the business laws of the State of Wisconsin, with $30,000.00 in capital. David Lawton became President of the new company, with Frank K. Bull, a former owner of the Racine Brake Company, as Vice-President, and Louis Emery Jones as Secretary/Treasurer.  The Company established their factory at 346 North Wisconsin Street in Racine where the made a line of farm implements including carts, feed cutters and wagon brakes.

This picture shows the brake lever of a horse-drawn buckboard located on the “north east corner” or the front right side corner of the buckboard.  As can be seen in this picture, the brake lever is attached to the rock shaft in front of the rear wheels.  Thus, when the driver pulls the brake lever, the rock shaft will rotate applying the brake shoes and pads to the rear wheeels.

Even though David Lawton became President of the newly formed Belle City Corporation, he was quite busy with many of his other business concerns, such as operating a flour and feed store located at 219 5th Street in Racine.  Indeed, David Lawton was pretty much a figure head as President of the Belle City Company with the real power devolving to the Vice-President–Frank Kellogg Bull.

Frank Kellogg Bull was Vice-President of the Belle City Manufacturing Company.

In addition to serving as vice president of Belle City, Frank Bull was also serving as treasurer for the J.I. Case Company, a major farm equipment manufacturing company which also happened to be located in Racine. (Frank Kellogg Bull can be seen in his role as president of the J.I. Case Company on page 87 of Full Steam Ahead: J.I. Case Tractors and Equipment 1842-1955, by David Erb and Eldon Brumbaugh [American Society of Agricultural Engineers: St. Joseph, Missouri, 1993]).  In today’s world, serving on the board of directors of competing companies is called an interlocking directorate.  would never be allowed.  Officers and board members of corporations owe a duty of loyalty to the shareholders of the corporation. This duty requires them to put the interests of the corporation ahead of all other economic interests–even their own economic interests. In the law, such a duty is called a “fiduciary duty.” When an officer or director has an economic interest which conflicts with this fiduciary duty, he stands the risk of being sued by the shareholders of the corporation for a “breach” of his/her fiduciary duty.

The City of Racine is located in Wisconsin, but very near the border between Wisconsin and Illinois–north of Chicago and south of Milwaukee

In this case, Frank Bull owed a fiduciary duty to two corporations which were competitors serving the same market–J.I. Case and Belle City.  Frank Bull had a clear conflict of interest. The shareholders of either corporation would be justified in asking which corporation was obtaining Frank Bull’s “best efforts.” Frank Bull’s conflict of interest was never so clear as when Belle City made a major policy decision in 1893.

When Belle City began production of grain threshers in 1893, they did so with the small, stationary “Columbia” thresher. The company could have entered the market producing large threshers or they could have produced a full line of threshers of all sizes. However, Belle City confined itself to the small thresher market. They did so “with the blessing of J.I. Case Company” according to John H. Jones, a Belle City employee, writing in a company memorandum. Case had decided not to enter the small thresher market and kept to the production of large threshers.  Channelling, Belle City toward the small thresher market would eliminate another potential competitor for Case in the large thresher market–the market that was thought to be the prime market.

An advertisement of the Columbia thresher which was manufactured by the Belle City Company of Racine, Wisconsin.

No doubt Frank Bull had a hand in guiding Belle City in making this decision and no doubt Frank Bull was the communicator (possibly the originator) of the “blessing” granted to Belle City, by Case, regarding this decision.  He was an officer in both corporations and served on the board of directors of both corporations.  One might have wondered at the time, without the benefit of hindsight, whether Belle City was best served by this decision of whether it might not have been in the best interests of the Belle City Company to compete directly against Case in producing a full line of threshers of all sizes, including large threshers.  Belle City’s relative smallness and efficiency as a corporation, compared with the J.I. Case Company, might have made Belle City a “lean and mean” competitor for Case in the production of large threshers.

Note that this caption acknowledges that the Belle City Manufacturing Company “specialized” in small threshers withour knowing the limitation imposed on the company by the interlocking directorate that Belle City shared with the J.I. Case Threshing Machine Company.

Furthermore, Belle City’s very fine thresher design might also have allowed the company to become a very strong competitor of Case in the production of large threshers. In addition, the average shareholder in the Belle City Company may have felt this decision cheated the company out of potentially high profits which it might have had in the large thresher market–a decision made by board members who also were deciding policy at Case.  No wonder, then, that a cry of protest went up which resulted in the United States Congress declaring such interlocking directorates illegal under Section 8 of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914. (Louis B. Schwartz, John J. Flynn and Harry First, Antitrust [Foundation Press: Mineola, N.Y. 1983] p. 214.)

An aerial view of the Belle City Company factory site as seen from the corner of Racine Street and DeKoven Avenue in the city of Racine, Wisconsin.  This is the southeast corner of the factory site where the offices of the Company are located.  As noted below the factory site is also bounded by Junction Avenue on the west and 17th Street on the north.  In this picture Belle City Manufacturing Company’s access to the Milwaukee Road and to the Chicago Northwestern tracks is in the upper left side of the picture.

However, the 1890s was still the time of unbridled, foot-loose, free-wheeling capitalism. Consequently, Frank Bull’s position on the board of J.I. Case was looked upon as an advantage for the Belle City Manufacturing Company when it really was not.  However, the decision to limit Belle City to the production of small threshers would, ironically, come back to haunt Case when in the 1920s the demand for small threshers would outstrip the demand for large threshers.

This is a picture of the workforce of the Belle City Company taken in the 1880s.  This picture is a good picture.  However, it was printed without its original caption.  Accordingly, below, is the complete original caption for this picture taken from another copy of the this same photo.  This original caption identifies every person in the picture.  That caption was attached to a very poor quality photo, which prevented that copy of the picture from being used in this article.

As can be seen from the original caption below, both Frank K. Bull and David Lawton can be seen sitting front and center in the first row of a gathering of Belle City employees in a picture taken in the 1880s.  (Frank K; Bull has a black hat on his head and sits between two men with white hats.  The man with the white hat to the right of Frank Bull in the picture is David Lawton.)  Additionally, to the left of Frank K. Bull in the front row, L.D. Jones, Louis Emory (L.E.) Jones and Robert Reisman are seen in the photo.  All of these men are mentioned elsewhere in the body of this article.

This is the complete original caption which identifies every person in the photo seen above.

In anticipation of the company’s expansion into the thresher market, Belle City relocated to an 11-acre site bordered by DeKoven Avenue, Racine Street 17th Avenue and Junction Street in Racine.  On most occasions this site is called the 17th Avenue and Junction Street because the offices of the factory were located on the corner of 17th and Junction Street.  This new factory site contained modern brick buildings which would become Belle City’s foundry, blacksmith shops and machine shops.

Power on the site was provided by a huge 60 horsepower Peerless engine supplied with steam by an 80 horsepower boiler.   In addition, the site was served by a spur to both the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad (nicknamed the Milwaukee Road) and the Chicago Northwestern Railroad.

The Milwaukee Road Railway and the Chicago Northwestern Railroad were the two railroad connections used by the Belle City Company at their factory site in Racine, Wisconsin.

In 1893, the Belle City Company began its manufacture of the newly introduced Columbia threshers by building 25 machines for the mass market. By 1896, Belle City was building and selling 175 to 200 Columbia threshers per year for the small thresher market. Belle City also expanded its farm product line to include truck and feed carts, horsepower treadmills, root cutters, adjustable harrows, and hay forks. The company was using over a quarter of a million board feet and its monthly payroll was in excess of $4,000.

The Chicago, Milwaukee, St.Paul and Pacific Railroad (known as the Milwaukee Road for short) was one of two railroads by which the Belle City Company reached its market with their threshers.

In 1895, David Lawton stepped down as president of the Belle City Manufacturing Company, so as to devote more time to his own proprietorship of the Flour and Feed Store located at 519 5th Avenue in Racine.  Frank K. Bull, cut back his responsibilities at the J. I. Case Company to take over the presidency of Belle City.

In 1909, the International Harvester Company (IHC), who did not have a thresher of its own, entered the thresher market for the first time by purchasing the rights to sell Belle City threshers. This was the start of a beneficial relationship for both companies, with Belle City becoming the beneficiary of the huge IHC network of more than 500 dealers and agents.  Meanwhile, IHC was able to immediately market a line of threshers which already had a growing reputation with threshermen as being well-built and efficient threshers. In 1910, Belle City manufactured five different sizes of threshers (20 x 32, 24 x 40, 32 x 52, 36 x 52 and 36 x 56) under the brand name of New Racine. Upon signing this contract with Belle City, IHC instantly became the primary marketer of this entire line of small threshers. This emphasis on the small thresher would place Belle City, and thus IHC, in a very favorable market position as the First World War came to a close and the small gasoline-powered tractor made its appearance on North American farms.

Some time during the period prior to the First World War, the Belle City Manufacturing Company employed a young bookeeper for their front office.  This person was George Andrew Nelson.  The hiring of George Andrew was to prove significant to the history of the Belle City Company.

George was the son of Niels P. and Marie M. (Hanson) Nielson.  George’s father, Niels Peter Nielson had been born in Denmark on April 6, 1868 and had migrated to the United States in 1890 at the age of 22 years,.  Like many young immigrants, Niels Peter was searching for a new and better life in the New World.  Arriving in New York City, Niels moved west to the rich agricultural land of the frontier, eventually settling in Cass County, Iowa.  (Somewhere along the process of setting in the new country, the family name was changed from “Neilson” to “Nelson.”  Likewise, Niels Peter shortened his first name to “Nels.”)

A county map of the state shows the location of Cass County in the southwest part of Iowa.

Settling in the small town of Atlantic, (1890 pop. 4,351) the county seat of Cass County, Nels Peter employed his skills as a shoemaker and opened his own shop in the town.  Atlantic was a booming railroad town served by the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad (nicknamed the Rock Island Line“).  The town had experienced rapid growth since its founding in 1868.  The population of Atlantic had grown by 18.8% in the 1880s, the decade before Nels had moved to town and would grow by another 16.0% in the decade of the 1890s.  New families were settling in Atlantic every day.

Steam Engine and Tender of the Rock Isand Line

In 1892 another Danish family arrived in Atlantic.  A daughter of this family was named Marie M. Hanson.  Nels met this young woman at the local Lutheran Church.  He was immediately struck by this pretty young woman and they fell in love.  Nels and Marie were married in January of 1893 and purchased a house located at 704 Olive Street in Atlantic.  On December 8 of that same year, the couple had their first child, a son, George Andrew.   Later, on March 27, 1896, a daughter, Lydia M. Nelson was born to the family and still later, on February 19, 1901 another daughter, Clara E. Nelson was born to the family living at 704 Olive Street.

However, the booming economy that Atlantic had been experiencing ended abruptly with the start of the new century.  Hard economic times hit the small city of Atlantic, Iowa, hard starting with stock market crisis called the “Panic of 1901.”  The Panic had been initiated by the titanic struggle between railroad magnates James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railway and Edward H. Harriman of the Union Pacific and Illinois Central railroads, for control of the Northern Pacific Railroad.  Hard times hit the small community of Atlantic during the early years  of the new century.  Although, Atlantic, Iowa was served by the Rock Island Line which had no connection with the railroads involved in the fight between James J. Hill and Edward Harriman, the Panic had spread throughout the whole railroad sector of the economy and then spread to the national economy of the United States as a whole.  For the first time since the city’s founding, Atlantic, Iowa, actually lost population–falling by 9.6% between 1900 and 1910.

The residual economic recession created by the Panic of 1901 stretched on into 1902 and created financial hardship for Nels Peter and his family.  Finally, the family was forced to give up their shoe making business and move from Atlantic altogether.  The family moved to Racine, Wisconsin, (1900 pop.  29,102) and rented a house at 1705 West Sixth Street.  Nels Peter opened a shoe store.  Shortly after establishing themselves in Racine, the family was blessed by the arrival of another boy.  On August 27, 1905, Valdemmar Emanuel Nelson, was born to Marie and Nels which completed the family.

For Nels, the job at the shoe store became unpredictable and during the First World War Nels Peter felt that he could make a better income by seeking work in the booming war industries.  Consequently, he obtained a job working for the Ajax Rubber Company.  This job allowed the family to move from the rented house at 1705 West Sixth Street into a home of their own at 1614 Quincy Avenue.  However, he soon found that he was having trouble with his lungs as a result of the atomosphere inside the rubber factory and he had to quit the job and return to the shoe store.

A 1918 Poster advertising the Ajax Rubber Company.

Racine, Wisconsin, was an important hub of the industrial and manufacturing belt of the United States.  The Belle City Manufacturing Company was jusr one of the manufacturing companies operating in Racine.  Ever since the Company, began manufacturing stationary threshers, the Company’s Belle City and New Racine threshers had become renowned for high quality and efficient threshers of grains and edible beans.  The Belle City Company also sought to expand its line of agricultural implements by manufacturing stationary silo fillers, feed choppers and other agricultural implements.

At this period of time the upper management of Belle City tended to be a family affair.  On September 16, 1880, Frank K.. Bull had married Arabella (Belle) Jones, who so happened to be the sister of Louis Emery Jones–who had been serving as the secretary/treasurer since the founding of the company in 1882.  Frank Bull was still serving as the President of the Company, still looking for someone to take over the presidency of the Company.  However, by 1916 he had stepped aside for his son-in-law, John Reid Jr. to become President.  On October 11, 1911, John Reid had been lucky enough to marry Jeanette Adelaide Bull, the only daughter of Frank K. Bull.  This was not the end of the family connections within the Belle City Manufacturing Company.

John Reid marries Jennette Bull and John Reid Jr. on their wedding day, October 11, 1911. On the extreme right side of the photo is Frank K. and Arabelle (Belle) Bull, parents of the bride and on the extreme left side of the photo is John and Lizzie Reid Sr., parents of the groom.

When Frank K. Bull stepped up to the presidency of the Belle City Manufacturing Company to replace David Lawton in 1895, a vacancy in the office of vice-president of the Company was created.  John H. Jones, was chosen to fill that vacancy and become the new vice-president of the Company.  John H. Jones was first new officer of the Belle City Manufacturing Company who was not an officer at the time of the founding of the Company in 1882.  He was also a member of family of the Jones family–the family of Louis Emery Jones, the current secretary/treasurer of the Company and the family of Arabella (Jones) Bull–Frank Bull’s own wife.  Needless to say, Frank Bull did have a substantial influence on the choice of his own successor in the position of vice-president and he turned to his own extended family for that successor.  Nor was this the only time that he would seek family members to fill positions at the Company.

On November 29, 1913, the long time secretary/treasurer at the Company–Louis Emery Jones, suddenly died at the age of 59 years.  To fill his shoes at the Company John Frank K. Bull turned to the 40 year-old Milton Maldwyn Jones, the youngest brother of the deceased Louis Emery Jones, to be the new secretary/treasurer.

The sales of threshing machines had increased to the point that in 1913, the Company decided to split the position for secretary/treasurer into two offices.  So, whereas Milton M. Jones continued as treasurer, the Company settled on long-time employee–Walter John Tostevin–to serve in the new position as serve in the new independent secretaryship.


Within the Belle City Company offices the secretary/treasurer was in charge of hiring of bookkeepers and accountants.  Some time in 1913, the Milton M. Jones made what appeared to be a routine hire of an assistant bookkeeper.  The Company would soon become aware of the significance of this particular hire.  This new employee was 20-year old George Andrew Nelson.

Very soon after the Nelson family arrived in Racine, young 16-year old George Andrew Nelson also obtained a job as an office worker for an automobile factory in Racine.  This was his apprenticeship–where he learned bookkeeping.  Now as a worker at Belle City Manufacturing, George Andrew impressed his new boss–Milton Jones and, consequently, George Andrew was promoted to full bookkeeper in 1916.  Diligent as his work, he started to become knowlegable of all sectors of the Company.  His depth of knowledge of the Belle City Company was recognized by the other management of the Company and soon he was included in the wider management side of the Belle City Manufacturing Company.

After only a few years at work at the Belle City Company, the United States became involved in the First World War.  George Andrew entered the U.S. Army on May 11, 1917.  Trained in boot camp as a part of the American Expeditionary Force (A.E.F.), George Andrew shipped out for France with the rest of the A.E. F.  In France, George Andrew fought in every major battle in which the A.E.F. participated.  Luckily, he survived this combat.

Back home, the departure of the A.E.F. left holes in the civilian work force.  In large part these vacanies were filled by the civilians left at home–women.  Belle City like most other employers had an all-male workforce. Even the stenography pool was all-male.  However, with the shortage of employable men during the war, Belle City began employing women.  One of their new stenographers hired in 1917, was Lucia C. Miller.  Lucia was the youngest daughter of a long-time employee of the Belle City Company–William F. Miller. William Miller had been a machinist for many years in the machine shop on the grounds of the Belle City Company.  For years William and his family had lived in the big house at 1147 Geneva Street in Racine.  However, as their large family had grown up and moved out of the house, William and his wife Lucia (Goedeke) and young Lucia moved out of the house on Geneva Street in 1915 and moved into a more comfortable house at 1231 Milwaukee Street.

However, on January 7, 1917, William died at the age of 65 years of age leaving Lucia C. and her mother, also named Lucia, alone in their new house on Milwaukee Street.  Times were hard at this time and required Lucia C. and her mother moved to a smaller house at 1322 Deane Street in Racine.  In the midst of this retrenment, that young Lucia C. started seeking work and led her to the job as a stenographer at the Belle City Manufacturing Company.  This new job allowed Lucia C. to not only support  her mother and still allowed her to become more independent.

Following the Armistice on November 11, 1918 and his discharge from the U.S. Army, George Andrew returned home to Racine, Wisconsin.  The only change in the upper management of the Belle City Manufacturing Company was the fact that the position of secretary/treasurer in the Company was divided.  Accordingly, John Reid Jr. was still President with John H. Jones as Vice president, however, whereas, Milton M. Jones continued as Treasurer, the secretarial duties of the position were removed and a new new independent position as secretary was established.  To fill this new independent secretaryship the Company turned to a long time employee–Walter Tostevin–who had been working for the Company since he was initially hired as a clerk on January 7, 1887 at age of 19 years.  Since that time he had been promoted to shipping clerk for the Company in 1894 and then to traffic manager  in 1913 befor becoming secretary in 1915.

They had fond memories of George Andrews abilities and welcomed him back t

As a returning veteran, George Andrew was welcomed back to him back to work for the Company.  However, this time he was hired into the more lucrative and responsible position of purchasing agent for the Company.

Some changes had occurred within the company while George was gone.  Women had come to work at the previously all-male office.  No longer were the stenographers at the company all male.  One of the new stenographers now working at offices of Belle City was Lucia Miller.  Lucia had been born in Racine on March 30, 1893 to William and Lucia (Goedeke) Miller.  While Lucia Miller had been born in the United States, both of her parents were immigrants from Germany.  Both her parents had come to the United States in 1869 and 1874, respectively where they had met and were married in 1879.  Lucia Miller, herself, fell in love with George Andrew Nelson and they were married in about 1920.  Together George Andrew and Lucia purchased a house at 1322 Deane Boulevard in Racine and set up housekeeping together.

Needless to say, the Reid presidency at the Company was a continuation of the policies of Frank Bull.  However, during the early 1920s the Company began a foray into development of a mechanical corn picking.  Belle City was not alone in the research and testing of prototypes .  Indeed, nearly every farm machinery manufacturer was busy creating prototypes and attempting to make them work successfully.  Finally, by 1929, Belle City was advertising itself as producing both “threshing and corn harvesting machinery.”  (More discussion of Belle City’s research into and deveopment of mechancal corn pickers follows in the second article in this two part series on the Belle City Company.)

John Reid unexpectedly died in 1925 at the young age 46 years.  To fill the vacancy left by his death, Frank K. Bull returned to the Company to assume the office of President on a temporary basis until a suitable candidate for the Presidency could be found.  However, while the search was being conducted for a new president, Frank K. Bull himself died in 1927 at the age of 70 years.  Eventually, Harry A. Reed was chosen to run the Company as president.   By 1929, the

Changes were occurring in the City of Racine, also.   Racine’s first telephone exchange had been established by P. J. Tacy in 1879.  At first their were only 24 subscribers to this service.  By 1923 Belle City had obtained telephone service for their factory offices and was advertising that these offices on the corner of 17th Street and Junction Avenue, could be reached at number 109 on the telephone exchange.  The number 109 probably indicates that the Belle City Manufacturing was the 109th customer to sign up for telephone service with the exchange located in Racine.  Although the purchse of telephones for residential service would not take off until the 1940s, telephones for business applications was booming in during the 1920s.

Additionally, changes had occurred in farming across the nation.  The most significant of these changes was the development the internal combustion engine as a means of power on the farms.

Credit usually goes to Charles W. Hart and Charles H. Parr for design of the first internal combustion, engine-powered farm tractor.  Soon after the Hart-Parr tractor was introduced to the farming public, many other farm machinery companies began to offer their own version of the internal combustion powered tractor.   However, many of these early gasoline tractors were almost as bulky and expensive as steam powered engines. For example, the 1903 Hart-Parr Model 22-40 weighed 8½ tons, the IHC Type D weighed 14,000 pounds, and the Case Model 60 weighed 25,800 pounds.

The true revolution in tractor power did not come until 1916 when the 2700 pound Fordson tractor was introduced by Ford Motor Company.

The small light weight Fordson Model F tractor was a revolution in the design of internal combustion farm tractors.

The Fordson was much smaller and lighter than the behemoths being produced by other farm equipment companies, and Henry Ford offered the Fordson to the farming public at $890.00.  This attractive price gave the small farmer a first real opportunity to be able to afford a gasoline-powered alternative to horses on the small family farm.  Farmers put the little Fordson to work on a great number of farming tasks and sales grew like wildfire across the United States.  In the post-war depression year of 1921, Henry Ford cut the price of his popular little Fordson by $165, to $625. (Lee Klanchner, Farmall Tractors [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1995] p. 21.) Originally, it was the 5,708 pound Titan 10-20 that was regarded as the “small tractor” for the “small farmer.” At $1,250, it was an attractive alternative to the much larger, pre-World War I gasoline-powered tractors. (Lee Klancher, International Harvester [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1996] p. 37.) Until 1921, IHC’s Titan 10-20 tractor was the most popular tractor in terms of sales.   In 1921, 7,729 Titans would be sold to American farmers. However, in comparison with the Fordson, the Titan was still a large, bulky tractor with a high price tag. Furthermore, the Titan was difficult to start and operate. (See “Farming with a 10-20 Titan” at page 16 in the May/June 1996 Belt Pulley.) Consequently, the Fordson easily surpassed the Titan in sales in 1921, with 36,000 Fordsons produced that year–nearly five times the number of Titans sold that same year. Clearly, in the post World War I era, the future of farming belonged to the small tractor. This trend represented a revolution in the production of farm tractors, and also affected other farm machinery markets–for instance, the thresher market. Smaller tractors were unable to power the large threshers and farmers turned in droves to small thresher manufacturers, like Belle City.

As noted above, Belle City had been producing small threshers since they were founded, and this production continued on a limited basis through the First World War. Now, with the increasing sales of small tractors, Belle City threshers suddenly became popular products. In an ironic twist of fate, the very decision made in 1893, which steered Belle City out of the large thresher market and into small thresher production, intended to preserve for Case the bulk of the large thresher market, actually put Belle City in a better position than Case to meet the requirements of the new farm market following the war. Now it was Case that was scrambling to make changes in its threshers.

Besides selling its threshers for the United States domestic market, Belle City also did business in Mexico and South America. Belle City became a major employer in the city of Racine, and by 1916, at the beginning of the period of the boom, the company employed 175 workers.

Prior to 1890s threshers had a table mounted on the front at which a person stood to hand feed the bundles into the thresher, Meanwhile at the other end threshers had only an elevator to move the straw away from thresher.

Meanwhile, Belle City continued to improve its threshers: First, they added the Farmers Friend windstacker. In this improvement, Belle City was not alone. The Farmers Friend windstacker had been developed by the Indiana Manufacturing Company. (C.H. Wendel, Farm Equipment and Antiques, [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc. 1996] p. 345.) After developing the air-blown, tube straw discharge system for threshers, the Indiana Manufacturing Company then licensed its new product to other thresher manufacturers. Being a substantial improvement over the straw elevator for stacking straw behind the threshing machines, the Farmers Friend windstacker soon became universal on threshers of all makes for the remainder of the threshing era.

The straw from a thresher was blown into a large pile by the Farmers Friend Wind Stacker.

Secondly, Belle City added self-feeders to their threshers. Prior to self-feeders, threshers were fitted with platforms near the mouth of the thresher where the operator would stand and receive bundles one at a time from the person on the wagon or on the stack. The operator would then cut the twine on the bundle and hand-feed the bundle into the thresher. (Hart-Parr/Oliver Collector readers will remember that a hand-fed thresher was used at the Steam Engine Joe Rynda Show held each year near Montgomery, Minnesota in the 1940s and 1950s. See “Build It and They Will Come,” in the Summer 1996 issue of Hart-Parr/Oliver Collector Vol. VII, No. II, p. 33.) Hand-feeding one bundle at a time was a slow, time-consuming process. The invention of the self-feeding mechanism for threshers was generally credited to the Wood Brothers Threshing Company of Des Moines, Iowa. Self-feeders would automatically cut the twine on the bundles and regulate the rate at which the bundles were fed into the thresher. It was another of those great improvements in thresher technology that would become universal on all threshers and remain a standard until the end of the threshing era. However, the name that would come to dominate the market in self-feeding mechanisms was the Hart Company.

As explained in the caption of this picture, the Hart Company bought out many its competitors in the automatic self feeder market These companies were absorbed in the Hart Company line. However, although, Hart made all the self-feeders themselves they allowed the feeders to be marketed under their original trade names.  Thus, this self-feeder appears as a “Langdon Ideal self-feeder.

The Hart Company also manufactured the third improvement in thresher design that became universalized on all threshers of whatever manufacture. Grain weighers were clam shell devices that sat atop the vertical clean grain elevator. The clean grain elevator would pour clean threshed grain into the clam shell bucket until a half-bushel had been weighed out. When the proper weight for the half-bushel had been reached, the clam shell would open and allow the grain to fall into the wagon elevator or the bagging attachment. Belle City followed suit in this trend also, and began installing the Hart grain weigher on all its threshers. Thus, by 1911, Belle City threshers sold to the public by IHC under the New Racine name were offered complete with the Farmer’s Friend windstacker, the Hart self-feeder and the Hart grain weigher.


Pictured here is a Hart grain weigher mounted on the top of the vertical grain elevator of a John Deere thresher. The vertical elevator deposits the grain into the “clamshell” type container on the Hart Company weigher. When the weight of the grain becomes the equivlent of 1/2 a bushel the clamshell will open and the grain will be dumped into the hopper connected to the horizontal elevator to be moved to the wagon. Each time the clam shell opens a small mechanical counter records the next highest number. The mechanical counter could be set to zero at the start of the day’s threshing.  At the end of the work day, the threshing crew then has only to multiple the number on the counter by two in order to discover the exact number of bushels that were threshed during that particular day.

J.I. Case made history in 1904 with the introduction of the first all-steel thresher. There was a reason for this: All-steel threshers were less of a fire hazard when used with a steam engine. Since Case’s line of large threshers required large horsepower demands which could only be supplied by steam power, it was natural that Case would seek the protection of an all-steel model thresher. Because smaller threshers tended to be powered by the somewhat less hazardous gasoline-powered tractors, there was a natural lag by the producers of small threshers in switching over to all-steel construction. Nonetheless, the producers of small threshers eventually became aware of the advantages of all-steel construction in terms of longer machine life, and eventually they ceased producing wooden threshers. In 1917, Belle City changed its New Racine thresher from an all-wood construction to a thresher with a wooden frame and sheet metal side pieces. In 1926, Belle City went to all-steel construction of all their threshers.

In 1925, the Belle City Manufacturing Company introduced its new line of all-steel threshers. As seen in this picture this particular thresher is equipted with all the modern features, the Farmers Friend Wind Stacker, the Hart Company self-feeder and the Hart Company grain weigher.

In 1926, IHC decided to manufacture its own line of threshers consisting of three models–20″ x 28,” 22″ x 36″ and 28″ x 42″. Aware, by this time, that the small thresher market was the only lucrative market, IHC offered no thresher larger than its 28″ x 42″ thresher. Indeed, the new IHC threshers bore a great deal of similarity to the Belle City New Racine threshers it had marketed prior to 1926; not the least of which was the new IHC threshers outfitted with Hart self-feeders and grain weighers, and the Farmers Friend windstacker manufactured under the license of the Indiana Manufacturing Company.

This 1911 advertising picture of a Belle City wooden thresher reveales that the three improvments of a Farmers Friend wind stacker; the Hart Company self-feeder and the Hart Company grain weigher were all available on threshers well before the introduction of the “all steel” thresher at Belle City.

Realizing they were losing the benefit of the large IHC dealer network, Belle City entered into a joint venture arrangement with Ford to sell its Belle City/New Racine thresher through Ford dealerships. Now Belle City was squarely on the Ford team. Their advertisements began to claim the “Belle City New Racine thresher was the universal thresher ideally matched to the Fordson–the universal tractor.” The name Fordson even appeared on Belle City threshers. During the period of time of the joint venture with Ford, Belle City continued to improve its little thresher by installing Timken roller bearings at 20 locations on the thresher.

In 1926, and for a short time thereafter, Belle City sold its own tractor, which was really a conversion kit made to modify a Fordson into a crawler/track-tractor. (The Belle City tractor is pictured on the bottom of page 44 in the Encyclopedia of American Farm Tractors by C.H. Wendel [Crestline Books: Sarasota, Fl. 1979].) Unfortunately, the Trackpull tractor was not to prove to be a success for the Belle City Company.

By the mid-1920s, sales of the Fordson had dipped behind other, more modern small tractors. By 1928, all United States production of the Fordson tractor ceased. (Robert Pripps and Andrew Moreland, Ford Tractors [Motorbooks International: Osceola, Wisc., 1990] p. 19.) From 1929 to 1932, all Fordson’s sold in the United States were manufactured by Ford at its facility in Cork, Ireland, and had serial numbers from 757,369 through 779,135. (Michael Williams, Frod and Fordson Tractors, [Farming Press: Frome, England, 1985] p. 66.) In 1932, all Fordson production was transferred to the Ford factory at Dagenham, in Essex in England, and all tractors were painted dark blue with orange wheels. This color design remained consistent until 1938 when the entirely orange Fordson was produced. In 1939, the Ford/Ferguson 9N was introduced and quickly replaced the outdated Fordson in the United States. (Production of the Fordson [dark green] continued at Dagenham in order to meet the needs of British agriculture, now that Britain was at war.) Through all these reorganizations of Fordson production, Belle City remained the thresher “built for Fordson” and sold at Ford dealers.

The depression struck Belle City like all other farm machine manufacturing companies. Yet, as the 1930s progressed, the advertising efforts of the company paid off. The company was able to sell its small threshers in sufficient numbers to allow for continued expansion of the company. In 1938, Belle City sold its factory site at DeKoven Avenue and Racine Street for $84,000 and purchased the old Ajax Tire Company site on Taylor Avenue.

In the late 1930s and early 1940s, while the country was still trying to avoid involvement in the war in Europe, Fred Gunther was a boy growing up in his parents’ home on Taylor Avenue near the Belle City factory. Fred remembers seeing train load after train load of threshers leaving the plant for farms all across the midwest.

On one particular day, one of those trains, containing a 28″ x 44″ Belle City thresher, rolled out of the Taylor Avenue factory and onto a Chicago Northwestern railroad flat-bed car where it was secured for a trip across Wisconsin to Minneapolis. After the flat-bed car with the thresher was joined to other railroad cars loaded with more Belle City threshers, the Chicago Northwestern train headed to Milwaukee. On its way out of town, it might have been noticed by young Fred Gunther. Once in Milwaukee, the railroad cars with the Belle City threshers were hooked to a train headed west to Minnesota while other car loads of freight continued north, up the Chicago Northwestern tracks to Door Peninsula, the summer vacation destination of many Chicagoans.

The train carrying this particular Belle City thresher passed through the gently rolling hills in the heartland of Wisconsin’s dairy industry, passing pasture after pasture of grazing Holsteins, Ayershires, Guernseys and Brown Swiss cattle, and crossing the Wisconsin River between the towns of Dellwood and Necedah. Crossing over the Mississippi River at Hudson, Wisconsin, the train entered Minnesota for the short journey to Minneapolis/St. Paul. There, the flat-bed cars carrying the Belle City threshers were taken to the spur at the Keegan Farm Equipment Co. of Minneapolis. Keegan’s was the “block house,” or main distributor, for Fordson tractors and other Ford farm equipment products servicing Ford dealers in small towns all across Minnesota. Belle City’s joint venture with Ford allowed Belle City to have access to its widespread dealer network. One of the Ford dealerships selling tractors in Minnesota prior to entry of the United States into the Second World War was the Frank Balek dealership of Lonsdale, Minnesota. This particular 28″ x 44″ thresher, which had been off-loaded at Keegans in Minneapolis, was eventually delivered to the Balek dealership on the south edge of the town of Lonsdale. Frank Balek, together with his son, Ray, who helped him in his dealership, had sold the thresher–the largest model ever made by Belle City–to an area farmer. Throughout the remaining period of peace, prior to United States involvement in the Second World War, the thresher was put to work threshing small grains, most likely as part of a neighborhood ring, where many farmers in the same neighborhood combined resources and labor at threshing time. During the Second World War, when farm commodity prices rose sharply, we can picture the 28″ thresher being employed more profitably than ever before, serving faithfully as part of the homefront in the war effort. Not long after the war, no doubt it was replaced by combines that individual farmers were buying.

Long after the 28″ Belle City thresher had been idly stored away and nearly forgotten in a shed, the thresher was purchased by Archie Babek of New Market, Minnesota. In the 1990s, the 28″ Belle City thresher was purchased by Wayne Svoboda and brought to the showgrounds of the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Association in rural LeCenter, Minnesota. Currently, the thresher resides indoors on the grounds in an unrestored condition. People attending the 1999 Show–to be held on August 27, 28 and 29–will be able to see the Belle City thresher as part of the permanent display of threshers. This will be a fitting exhibit, because in 1999 the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Association is hosting the 1999 National Summer Convention of the Ford Collectors Association, featuring the Fordson and Ford/Ferguson tractors.

Attempts have been made to have the thresher restored by Pioneer Power members Doug Hager, Dwight Yaeger and Mark Meyer of Good Thunder, who have restored many of the operating threshers on the showgrounds. It is hoped that in the not too distant future restoration can be completed and the machine made a part of the field demonstrations at future shows–a fitting tribute to the little company from Racine, Wisconsin, that pioneered in development of the small thresher.

Rockwood Pulley Company of Indianapolis Indiana

The Rockwood Pulley Company of Indianapolis, Indiana: Manufacturer of Paper Pulleys


BrianWayne Wells

As published in the March/April 1997 issue of

 Belt Pulley Magazine

A large Rockwood paper pulley that the current author had restored by “Paper Pulleys Inc.” of Columbia, Tennessee in 1995 for installation on a PAPEC Model 127 silo filler.

They are everywhere at threshing shows, just as they used to be everywhere on farms:  on threshing machines, corn shredders, hammer mills, ensilage cutters, and tractors.  Seldom are they really noticed, but they make everything work smoothly.  They are, as the advertisements used to say, the “pulleys that grip while others slip.” (See the 1938 Rockwood advertisement on page 113 of Threshers, by Robert Pripps and Andrew Moreland [Motorbooks International Publishers: Osceola, Wis. 1992]).   They are Rockwood paper pulleys.

They were commonly called “paper pulleys” because of the heavy fibrous material that was wrapped around the metal core of the pulley.  This fibrous material was made by a process identical to that of manufacturing paper, except that the raw material being used was straw.  Because of their ability to grip, paper pulleys were a technological leap over the wooden and steel pulleys that were first used in flat belt applications like threshing machines.

Although over the years (since the first appearance of paper pulleys on the North American farm scene) other companies would enter the field of manufacturing paper pulleys, it was nonetheless Rockwood Manufacturing Company that developed the first paper pulley.  Rockwood so dominated the paper pulley market, that the terms “Rockwood pulley” and “paper pulley” were often used interchangeably.

W. O. Rockwood
William O. Rockwood of Indianapolis, Indiana.


Like so many companies, the Rockwood Manufacturing Company began as the dream of a single person.  William O. Rockwood was born to Rev. Elisha and Susannah Rockwood of Westboro (Westborough), Massachusetts.  Elisha was a doctorate of divinity graduate of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire.  Upon graduation, he became the minister for the parish of Westborough, a post he would hold for 27 years.  His wife, Susannah Brigham (Parkman) Rockwood, was the daughter of Rev. Ebenezer Parkman, who had been the first minister of the same Westborough parish.  Together, they saw to it that their young son, William O. Rockwood, obtained a good education, enrolling him in Leicester and Amherst Academies, and then entering him at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut.  William O., however, rebelled against the ministry, the path laid out for him by his parents.  He had a love of the sea.  Accordingly, after two years at Yale, he signed on to a sailing vessel bound for Savannah, Georgia, at which port the ship would be loaded with cotton and would sail for Liverpool, England.  Upon his return to Massachusetts, he stayed for a while with his parents.  On June 4, 1836, William’s mother died.  This was a shock to the young man and set him on a different course in life. Continue reading Rockwood Pulley Company of Indianapolis Indiana