Category Archives: Tillage Equipment

A 1954 Case Model SC with Foot Clutch and Eagle-Hitch Options Farming in York County, Pennsylvania

A Case Model SC Tractor Bearing the Serial Number and with the Optional Foot Clutch and the Optional Eagle-Hitch

by

Brian Wayne Wells

This article remains under construction. Periodically new  blocks of text and media may appear and/or the present blocks of text will be modified or corrected.

York County, Pennsylvania, is located on the southern boundary of the State of Pennsylvania is sandwiched between two other better-known counties, both also located on the southern Pennsylvania border. Adjacent to York County on the east, along the southern border of Pennsylvania is Landcaster County. The Susquehanna River forms the eastern border of York County with Landcaster County.

Lancaster County is the traditional “Pennsylvania Dutch” area of the state and has traditionally been the home of the largest historically Amish and Mennonite colonies in the United States of America. Adjacent to the west side of York County, along the southern boundary of Pennsylvania is Adams County. The county seat of Adams County is the small city of Gettysburg, location of the famous 1863 battle of the United States Civil War. Indeed the Battle of Gettysburg was the famous turning point battle of the United States Civil War (1861 through 1865).

Both Lancaster and Adams Counties are much better known to the general public than York County because of the great number of tourists who visit both Gettysburg and the Pennsylvania Dutch area. In comparison, York County, has few if any comparable tourist attractions like its two neighboring counties.

McCormick-Deering Model 33A Tractor-Mounted Power Loader

McCormick-Deering Model 33A

Tractor-Mounted Power Loader

by

Brian Wayne Wells

  This article remains under construction.  Periodically, new blocks of text will appear in the article and/or  current blocks of text will be corrected.

The Farmall Model 300 which bears the Serial Number 22368 is the subject of another article in this website called “The Farmall Model 300 Tractor.” As noted at the end of that article No. 22368 when the tractor was sold to Wells Family Tractors in the Spring of 2018, the tractor was sold to with the a McCormick-Deering Model 33A power loader mounted on the tractor. This Model 33A loader is the subject of the present article.

As noted, in another article on this website called “The 1955 Farmall Model 300 Tractor bearing the Serial Number 22368,” when this Model 300 tractor was sold to Wells Family Tractors Inc. in the spring of 2018, No. 22368  was fitted with a mounted McCormick-Deering Model 33A tractor loader.  This loader probably was not mounted on the tractor at the time of its initial purchase in 1955 from the International Harvester Company dealership in Chaska, Minnesota.  Rather, the loader must have been purchased and mounted on the No. 22368 at a later date.  The loader mounted on No. 22368 is identified by decals on the lifting arms as a Model 33A loader. 

The original factory installed decals on the McCormick-Deering Model 33A loader mounted on No. 22368.

Some time prior to the introduction of the Model 33A power loader, the International Harvester Company had manufactured an earlier power tractor loader called the Model 33 tractor-mounted power loader.  The hydraulic controlled tractor mounted power loader had really only come into its own in the period of time since the Second World War. technological Farm equipment manufacturers were just leaning about the However, the Model 33 was not successful in field operations because it was an extremely light loader–too light for most of the jobs that farmers found for the loader on their farms.

and was not a successful power loader looked nothing like the loader shown on the cover of the the piece of advertising literature shown below.  The loader pictured on the cover is much improved over the Model 33.  Indeed it is an exact duplicate of the heavier, more rugged  Model 33A loader.  The fact that the loader is mounted on a Farmall Model 350 wide-front tractor, suggests that the Model 33A loader must have replaced the Model 33 at a time concurrent with introduction of the Farmall Model 350 and Model 450 tractors.

The advertising booklet pictured above purports to feature the “Model 33” loader. However, the loader pictured is actually a Model 33A which was introduced to replace the much lighter Model 33 loader.  The Model 33 looked much different than the 33A.  Rather than being a piece of literature advertising the Model 33, it seems that this is a piece of literature is introducing the Model 33A loader to the farming public.  It just seems that McCormick-Deering was intending on introducing the new loader pictured here as a “new improved” Model 33 loader and only later decided to designate the new  model loader as the Model 33A  to avoid confusion because of the great number changes between the Model 33 and the Model 33A.  This piece of literature supports the thought that the Model 33A loader was introduced during the short production run of the 350 and 450 tractors from the late fall of 1956 until the late summer of 1958.   

 

In addition to being independent hydraulic cylinders on either side of the Model 33A loader controlled by the inside lever of the three hydraulic control levers on the right side of the dash board on the operator’s platform.  The hydraulic cylinders were also “two-way” cylinders.  This means that the cylinders on the arms of the loader can apply pressure and power in both directions–when contracting as well as when extending.  Lifting the loader is effected by pulling back on the “inside” hydraulic ed, above, when purchased in the spring of 2018, No. 22368  was fitted with a mounted McCormick-Deering Model 33A tractor loader.  This loader probably was not mounted on the tractor at the time of its initial purchase in 1955 from the International Harvester Company dealership in Chaska, Minnesota.  Rather, the loader must have been was mounted on the No. 22368 at a later date.  The loader mounted on No. 22368 is identified by decals on the lifting arms as a Model 33A loader. 

 

 

 

There was a Model 33 tractor-mounted power loader.  However, the Model 33 was an extremely light loader and looked nothing like the loader shown on the cover of the the piece of advertising literature shown below.  The loader pictured on the cover is much improved over the Model 33.  Indeed it is an exact duplicate of the heavier, more rugged  Model 33A loader.  The fact that the loader is mounted on a Farmall Model 350 wide-front tractor, suggests that the Model 33A loader must have replaced the Model 33 at a time concurrent with introduction of the Farmall Model 350 and Model 450 tractors.       

 

 

The advertising booklet pictured above purports to feature the “Model 33” loader. However, the loader pictured is actually a Model 33A which was introduced to replace the much lighter Model 33 loader.  The Model 33 looked much different than the 33A.  Rather than being a piece of literature advertising the Model 33, it seems that this is a piece of literature is introducing the Model 33A loader to the farming public.  It just seems that McCormick-Deering was intending on introducing the new loader pictured here as a “new improved” Model 33 loader and only later decided to designate the new  model loader as the Model 33A  to avoid confusion because of the great number changes between the Model 33 and the Model 33A.  This piece of literature supports the thought that the Model 33A loader was introduced during the short production run of the 350 and 450 tractors from the late fall of 1956 until the late summer of 1958.   

 

 

 

Once the Model 33A loader was introduced, International Harvester continued to make improvements to the loader in a never ending attempt to strengthen the loader.  One of the features of the early style Model 33A  In  particular, while the early style of Model 33A had a segmented arrangement of supports between the upper rail and the lower rail of each arm on the loader.  The loader pictured on the cover of the advertising literature shown above, has the segmented reinforcement between the upper and lower rails on the arms of the loader arms.  Clearly this is a very early version of the Model 33A power loader.  Later versions of the Model 33A had a single piece reinforcement over the whole space between the upper and lower rails of the loader arms, rather than just intermittent segments of reinforcement.  

 

 

The late style Model 33a loader featuring the single piece reinforcement of the entire space between the upper and lower beams on the arms on either side of the loader..

 

The style of Model 33A loader mounted on No. 22368 was one these later manufactured 33A loaders which featured the single piece reinforcement over the whole space between the upper and lower rails of the arms on each side of the loader.  This single piece reinforcement of the entire space between the upper and lower beams on the arms of the loader appears to be a feature that distinguishes the later 33A loaders from the earlier Model 33A loaders with the segemented style of reinforcement.  .  

 

 

The upper and lower support bars on the arms of the McCormick Deering Model 33A power loader are connected with a single piecwe of metal–indicating that this loader mounted on No. 22368 is a late styled Model 33A power. loader. .

 

The advertising picture below shows a brand new McCormick-Deering Model 201 manure spreader being loader with manure for the first time.  The manure spreader is hitched to a Model 350 Farmall tractor.  Loading the manure into the spreader is a Model 450 Farmall tractor with a early style Model 33A loader with the segmented form of reinforcement between the upper and lower rails on the arms of the loader.  This is further evidence of the  contention that the Model 33A loader was introduced during the production run of the Model 350 and Model 450 tractors, between the late autumn of 1956 and the late summer of 1958.

 

This picture of a brand new manure spreader being loaded with manure for the first time is clearly a promotional picture taken by the International Harvester Company.  The picture is important because it shows the early style Model 33A tractor loader mounted on a new Farmall Model 450 tractor. This suggests that the Model 33A tractor loader was introduced during the production run of the Model 450 and Model 350 tractors from the late autumn of 1956 through the,late summer of 1958.

Installation of the Model 33A loader on No. 22368 well after the tractor’s initial purchase in 1955, suggests that the tractor was being prepared for a career as a loader tractor.  However, neither the tractor nor the loader bear any signs of excess wear or even normal use.

No. 22368 appears to be a tractor that has hardly been used by the time the tractor was later purchased in about 2000 by David Falk of Waconia, Minnesota. When No, 22368 was sold to Brian     of  LeSueur, Minnesota.  As noted above, Wells Family Tractors, purchased No. 22368 from Wayne Schwartz in the summer of 2018 complete with its McCormick-Deering Model 33A tractor power loader.  The intent was to use No. 22368 and its mounted farm loader, as a utility tractor around the Wells Family Tractor warehouse located in LeSueur, Minnesota, for, among other tasks, loading steel-wheeled plows and other heavy steel-wheeled farm machinery on a trailer to be transported to the LeSueur Pioneer Power in rural LeSueur community.  For this type of large scale fork lift type of work a hydraulically powered loader bucket was a requirement.  However, the particular Model 33A power loader mounted on No. 22368 was fitted with a “dump-style” bucket intended for cleaning manure from a barn and dumping it into a manure spreader.

Research by Mark Wells revealed that a hydraulic cylinder,  supports and hydraulic hoses were available as part of an optional power bucket for the Model 33A farm tractor loader.  Further, research by Mark Wells on Craig’s List found that another Model 33A tractor power loader with the optional power bucket was for sale at a location on the shore of Mille Lac Lake, near the small town of Isle, Minnesota.  This loader was owned by David Steve Martin of Champlin, Minnesota (2010 pop. 23,089).  Although living in Champlin, Minnesota David had a piece of land on the shores of Mille Lacs Lake near Isle, Minnesota (2010 pop. 751).  On this property David  kept several Farmall tractors including quite a few Famall H’s.  Nearly all of these Farmalls are in running order as David proved by starting nearlt akl of them quite easily during the short amount of time that the current author was in on his property. 

To pickup the loader and bring it back to LeSueur, the current author determined that it would be most easily done by taking the 1951 Farmall H’s owned by Wells Family Tractors to David’s property in Isle and partially mounting the loader on the rear axle housings of that tractor and then backing the tractor around toward the and then pulling the tractor and loader up on to the bed-over wheels trailer with the winch on the trailor towed behind the current author’s pickup truck.

 

 

 

Accordingly, one July day in 2018, the current author hitched up the trailer to his pickup truck and loaded up the 1951 Famall H bearing the serial number 375596 onto the trailer.  The current author got off early in the morning and found David and was guided to his property by periodic conversations over the cell phone. Arriving early in the town of Isle, the author found that the cloudy weather and periodic breezes while threating rain did keep the July day rather coolish considering the month. 

 

The early style Model 33A McCormick-Deering tractor tractor loader on the ground of the property of David Steve Martin located in Isle, Minnesota on the shore of Mille Lac Lake. The hydraulic cylinder attached to the bucket of the loader can easily be seen in this picture.  Although one of the early style loaders this particular loader is, nonetheless, fitted with the optional hydraulic cylinder on the bucket.  It was this feature that attracted Mark Wells and the current author to this loader. They wished to move the bucket cylinder to the later style 33A tractor loader that they already had purchased along with No.     

   

The author was able to get the loader attached to the rear axles housings of the Farmall H bearing the serial number 375596. after pulling the  After talking with David Steve Martin over the phone the current author drove to Mille Lacing not fitted with a hydraulically powered for this ther heavy tfor  In from    ,

The Farmall Super C which bears the Serial Number

by

Brian Wayne Wells

           This article remains under construction.  Periodically, new blocks of text will appear in the article and/or  current blocks of text will be corrected.

The Super C purchased by late Ambrose Holicky is seen being driven by his son, Howard Holicky. Howard restored the Super C that was first and fitted the tractor with the same number of wheel weights that were mounted on the Super C which was tested at the University of Nebraska on and with the , e here plowing the field behind 764 South Elmwood in the City of LeSueur, Minnesota.

In 1954 Ambrose Holicky had been farming since he returned home to LeSueur County from the Second World War. As noted in an earlier article in this an earlier article, in 1953 he had purchased a new 1953 Super M Farmall from the Charles Clark Implement dealership in Cleveland, Minnesota. This was Ambrose Holicky’s main tractor on the farm. (See the article included in this website called “Charles Cook Implement Dealership in Cleveland, Minnesota: The 1953 Super M purchased by Ambrose Holicky.”)

By 1959, he had two sons that were now of age to help him on the farm and as a result he needed a a second tractor. Attending auctions in the LeSueur County area, he eventually found a 1952 Super C and bid on the tractor and ended up as the owner of the tractor.

The Ramona, Kansas, 1935 John Deere Model D bearing the Serial No. 123360

The John Deere Model D bearing the Serial No. 123360: The Ramona Kansas Tractor

by

Brian Wayne Wells

 

      This article remains under construction.  Periodically, new blocks of text will appear in the article and/or  current blocks of text will be corrected.

 

A restored 1935 John Deere D tractor, similar to the Ramona tractor when sold new through the Tatje Bros. Implement dealership of Ramona, Kansas.

 

As noted in the article called “Alfred Fulcher and the Cresco Implement Company of Cresco, Iowa” which is  included as part of this website and blog, Wells Family Tractors obtained a 1935 “unstyled” John Deere Model D tractor upon the recommendation of Marilyn (Hanks) Wells, mother of the current author.  Marilyn Wells had always been intrigued by the Model D because a 1931 version of the tractor had been the first tractor that her father,  Howard B. Hanks, grandfather of the current author, had ever owned.

On the right is a county map of Iowa, highlighting the location of Howard County. On the left is an outline of Howard County with the town of Cresco highlighted.

This 1931 two-speed Model D was first purchased by John T. Goff in 1931 from Beske Implement of Minnesota Lake, Minnesota.  The story of this 1931 John Deere Model D is contained in an article called “Beske Implement of Minnesota Lake, Minnesota” which is contained in this website and blog.  Howard and his  wife, Ethel (Buck) Hanks, rented the John T. Goff farm in Mapleton, Minnesota in 1935 and continued to operate the farm until March 1, 1945, when they purchased the “Bagan farm” in Beaver Township, Fillmore County, Minnesota, near LeRoy, Minnesota.

This 1926 two-speed John Deere Model D is similar to the John T. Goff/Howard Hanks 1931 two-speed John Deere Model D.

While on the Goff farm Howard Hanks used the 1931 Model D on a near daily basis and came to appreciate power farming.  Thus, in 1945, as the Hanks family moved off the Goff farm to take possession of the Bagan farm in Fillmore county, they purchased the 1931 John Deere Model D from John T. Goff and transported the tractor to the Bagan farm near LeRoy, Minnesota.

Howard Hanks and 11-year old Bruce Hanks operate the 1931Goff/Hanks two-speed John Deere Model D plowing in the fields in 1935 on the Goff farm south of Mapleton, Minnesota.

By 1950, Howard and his oldest son Fred Hanks, were farming the Bagan farm as a partnership.  Fred had been pushing to modernize the farm with newer farm machinery.  Thus, when Howard and Fred were on Sunday afternoon sightseeing  trip in August of 1950, they saw a 1935 three-speed John Deere Model D sitting on the used tractor lot of the John Deere dealership in Cresco, Iowa, they decided to stop and look at the tractor.  In the post-World War II era old steel-wheeled, two-speed tractors like the 1931 Model D with its top speed of only 3-1/4 miles per hour, were really becoming obsolete on a modern post-war farm.  However, Howard loved the old Model D.  While recognizing the shortcomings of the 1931, two-speed Model D, he was favorably disposed toward obtaining this newer version of the same tractor–especially a Model D with rubber tires and a 5 mile an hour top speed.  Accordingly, Howard and Fred purchased the 1935 Model D from the Cresco Implement Company in exchange for the 1931 Model D and some additional “boot” money.  This 1935 Model continued to be employed on the Bagan (now Hanks) farm until the 1970s, when the tractor was sent to the Francis Mims junk yard.

A more detailed discussion of this 1935 Model D is contained in the article called Al Fulcher and the Cresco Implement Company dealership which is a part of this website and is cited above.   Continue reading The Ramona, Kansas, 1935 John Deere Model D bearing the Serial No. 123360

The 1955 Model 300 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 22368.

The 1955 Farmall Model 300 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 22368.    

by

Brian Wayne Wells

      This article remains under construction.  Periodically, new blocks of text will appear in the article and/or  current blocks of text will be corrected.

 

The tricycle-style Farmall Model 300 tractor.  This tractor has the optional three hydraulic levers which are attached to the hood of the tractor behind the steering wheel on the operator’s platform.  From this angle the levers can be seen in this picture, just  just behind the headlight.  Two of these levers will control the hydraulic oil flow through the two hydraulic hoses, which are seen in this picture in front of the belt pulley.  These two hoses will led to hydraulic connectors on the rear of the tractor to be used for remote hydraulic cylinders on any farm equipmdnt that might be towed by the tractor.  The  third lever is probably for the fast hitch on the tractor.

 

The Farmall 300 bearing the serial number 22368 with the mounted McCormick-Deering Model 33A power loader was for sale during the 2018 Swap Meet on the grounds of the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Association.

 

Introduction of the  “letter-series” tractors actually began on June 21, 1939 with the full scale production of the Farmall Model A tractor at the company’s “Tractor Works” factory located at 24th Street and Western Avenue in Chicago, Illinois.  During the last half of 1939, the Tractor Works would turn out 6,243 Farmall Model A tractors and the next year–1940 (the first full year of production)–the Chicago  factory would manufacture 34,756 Farmall Model A tractors.

An advertisement of the introduction of the “letter-series” tractors in 1939. In July of 1939 only the Farmall Models M, H, and A were introduced. In December 1939 a fourth model–the Model B was introduced. ,

 However, the real action in Farmall tractor production was occurring across the State of Illinois on the Mississippi River at Rock, Island, Illinois.  In Rock Island, at the company’s “Farmall Works” facility the larger Farmall tractors which held the future of the company, were being produced.  The three-plow Farmall M, which was the largest of the row-crop tractors of all the letter series tractors, began production on July 15, 1939 at the huge “Farmall Works” factory.  The Farmall Model H tractor began production on its own assembly line within the Farmall Works.

The Farmall H assembly line at the Farmall Works factory in uRock Island, Illinois was always busy turning out the most popular of all Farmall letter series tractors–the Model H.

As noted in other articles at this website, when the two-plow Farmall H began production on July 21, 1939, the Model H quickly became the leading seller in the Farmall line of tractors,  immediately out-selling the  larger Farmall M.  (In 1939, 10,152 Farmall Model H’s were made and sold as opposed to only 6,739 Farmall M’s)  There were at multiple assembly lines in the large Farmall Works facility.  One of the assembly lines in the Farmall Works was dedicated to production of the Farmall H, while production of the Farmall M was performed on another assembly line in another part of the factory.

An aerial view of the Farmall Works factory in Rock Island, Illinois

Observers had long expected that the larger and more powerful three-plow tractor of the letter series, the Farmall Model M would outsell the two-bottom Model H.    However, from the very start of the production run of the letter series in the summer of 1939, the Farmall Model H proved to be the most popular selling tractor of the series.  With the exception of the single year of 1947, this would remain the situation until 1949.  

The Farmall Model H was the most popular selling tractor of the series.

During the years that followed the introduction of the letter-series tractors, production of the Farmall H continued to outstrip production of the Farmall M in the years that followed.  (41,734 Farmall H’s were made in the modelyear 1940 and 40,850 were made in 1941.  During the same years, production of the larger Farmall M was limited to only 18,131 in 1940 and 25,617 in 1941.)  These were the glory years of tractor production for the Farmall Model H.

However, with the coming of the Second World War, the United States government began to restrict the use of raw materials and manufacturing capacity for anything but the war effort.  Civilian manufacturing was greatly curtailed during the war years.  Accordingly, in model year 1942,  production of the Farmall Model H at International Harvesters‘ Farmall Works in Rock Island, Illinois fell to 29,353.  In 1943, production of the Model H fell to 27,661 tractors.  In 1944, production rose again to 35,872, but still did not reach the pre-war production figures. Production in 1945 was  28,697 Farmall H’s.  Even with the end of the war, the number of Farmall Model H’s rolling off the Model H assembly line at the huge Rock Island Farmall Works facility in 1946, still was limited to 26,343 Farmall H’s.   (During these same immediate post-war years, production of the Farmall M lagged behind at 9,025 tractors in 1942; 7,413 Farmall Model M’s in 1943;  and 20,661 Model M’s in 1944; 17,479 in 1945; 17,259 in 1946 and 28,885 in 1947.)

Public appreciatioin of the benefits of the more powerful Farmall Model M would not make the Farmall M the best selling tractor in the Farmall line until 1949.

However, as the demand for bigger and more efficient farm equipment grew in the post-war years, farmers turned to buying larger farm tractors like the Farmall Model M.  As a result the sales gap between the Model H and the Model M sales narrowed and in 1947 sales of the Farmall M reached 28,885 tractors and actually surpassed sales of the Farmall H  (27,848 Farmall H’s in 1947)  for the first time.  After falling behind the Model H in sales for the year 1948, (31,885 Farmall Model H’s as opposed to 28,806 Model M’s were manufactured in 1948), the Model M once again took the lead in the sales and production again in 1949 with 33,065 Farmall M’s rolling  off  the Model M assembly line while only 27,099 Farmall H’s rolled off the Model H assembly line at the Farmall Works facility in Rock Island, Illinois.  This time the Model M would continue to lead the Farmall H in production figures for the remainder  of the production run of the letter-series tractors.  (In 1950, production of the Model M reached 33,939 tractors.  In 1951, a record, 43,405 Farmall M tractors were made and sold.

In 1952, the International Harvester Company replaced the Farmall Model M with the new Farmall Super M.  Early in the production year of 1952 the Farmall Works factory in Rock Island, Illinois made 7,295 Farmall M tractors before the factory was closed down for retooling and preparation for the production of the Super M.  International Harvester actually built 12,015 Super M’s at the Farmall Works in Rock Island, Illinois in the latter part of the 1952 production year.  (An additional 1,905 Super M’s built at the newly constructed factory located in Louisville, Kentucky.)

Meanwhile, on the Farmall H assembly line at the same Rock Island factory, 23,948 Farmall Model H’s rolled off the Model H assembly line in 1950; 23,938 followed in 1951 and an identical number of 23,938 were made in 1952.  Accordingly, after the first three years of production of the Farmall H–1939-1941, production of the Farmall Model H became much more consistent during  the 11 years from 1942 through 1952.  During these 11 years the average yearly production of Farmall Model H’s was 27,871 Model H’s per year, or 2,323 every month during this period of time. If we assume that the average month consists of 20 working days excluding weekends and holidays the daily production of Farmall H’s during this period was 116 tractors each work day.

Additionally, 727 Farmall H’s were made in 1953 bringing the total number of Farmall H’s manufactured during the entire production run from 1939 through 1953 to 391,227 individual tractors.  Of course, in 1953, the International Harvester Company replaced the Farmall Model H with a the Farmall Model Super H.  So after making the 727 Farmall H’s in the early part of the production year of 1953– the Farmall Works facility closed down for a retooling of the H assembly line.  Following the retooling of the H assembly line, the Farmall Works produced 21,707 individual Super H tractors in the latter part of 1953.

Adding the 1953 production of Farmall H’s with the 1953 production of Super H’s together,results in the combined production figure of  22,434 individual tractors that came off the Farmall H assembly line at the Rock Island Farmall Works in 1953.  This combined production figure for 1953 was only 5,437 less that the average yearly production of the Farmall H assembly line in the Farmall Works facility.   The loss of production time in 1953 from the average production year appears to be the equivalent of two-months and seven working days.  This was probably the amount of time that was needed for a skeleton crew of workers to retool the Farmall H assembly line at the Farmall Works to begin full production of the Super H.

Introduction of the Farmall Super H occurred at the Minnesota State Fair in late August of 1952 which was the actual beginning of the 1953 “model year.”

This article has been referring to the term “production year.” If the “production year” coincided with the calendar year, it would logical to assume that the 1953 production of 727 Farmall H’s occurred over the first six days in January, 1953.  However, it is more likely that the 1953 production figures are not for the “calendar year” of 1953, but rather are for the “production or model year” of 1953.  Tractors did not change styling on an annual basis the way that automobiles were starting to do annually in the post-World War period, but tractors were starting follow a “model year” system like automobiles rather than following a traditional  calendar year system.  Under the model year system,new model automobiles were introduced in September of the previous year rather than on January 1st of the current year.  However, the model year in tractors would need to begin in August of each year, especially for model years that involved substantive changes in the model of tractor.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.the model year in tractors would need to begin in August of each year, especially for model years that involved substantive changes in the model of tractor.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.the model year in tractors would need to begin in August of each year, especially for model years that involved substantive changes in the model of tractor.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.

Accordingly, we might conclude that full production run of the Farmall Super H was begun in early August of 1952 to have sufficient time to get examples of the new Super H off the production line and shipped to the Minneapolis/St. Paul Minnesota “block house” (the International Harvester Company-owned distribution warehouse located at 2572 University Avenue in the midtown area between the two cities.  Ordinarily, the staff at the block house would be hurriedly re-shipping the tractors they received from the Farmall Works to the various dealerships around Minnesota who they served.  However, in this case the block house staff would be instructed to not ship any Super Hs out to their dealership until after the official introduction of the Super H at the large International Harvester tent on the State Fairgrounds on the first day of the State Fair.

Television in the early 1950 helped create even more excitement around the Minnesota State Fair.  Tractor Manufacturers could not pass up the advertising possibilities to reach the farming public available at the Minnesota State Fair.  Here KSTP Channel 9 television out of Minneapolis at the State Fair adds to the excitement and advertising possibilities of the State fair in the 1950s.

KMSP Channel 9 television out of Minneapolis at the State Fair in the 1950s.

It was well advertised that the Model Super H had more horse power (hp.) than the regular Farmall Model H.  (Testing in Nebraska had shown the new Super H to turn out 30.68 hp. at the drawbar and 33.40 hp. at the belt pulley.  While the regular Model H had created only 24.17 hp. at the drawbar and 26.40 at the belt pulley.)  However, one small difference that probably went unnoticed at the State Fair, was the fact that the wheel base of the Super H was about an inch longer that the regular H.  (89.25 inches for the Super H and 88.325 inches for the regular H)  a single inch added to the wheel base would hardly be noticeable to anyone.  This was a sign that the addition of live hydaulics as an option to the Super H had made space along the top of the power train and inside the transmission case extremely limited.  The H needed to be totally redesigned in the near future.  Thus, it was no surprise that for the model year 1955,International Harvester Company replaced the Farmall Super H in their line of farm tractors with the Farmall Model 300 tractor. 

 Once again the “model year” of 1955 actually began in 1954.   A book written by Guy Fay and Andy Kraushaar called Original Farmall Hundred Series 1954-1958 reveals that  IHC records show that production of the Farmall 300 began in November of 1954.  During November and December of 1954 the records in the Fay and Kraushaar book have 1,182 Model 300 tractors built in November and 1,677 Model 300 tractors built in December of 1954.  Like the Model Super H, production of the Farmall 300 was also short lived. Clearly, in this case, no Model 300 tractors were available for the 1954 Minnesota State Fair.  The introduction of the Farmall Model 300 to the Minnesota State Fair had to wait until August of 1955.

(Coincidentally, the current author attended this fair as a six year old child.  along with his parents, the late Wayne A. Wells, Marilyn (Hanks) Wells, four year old brother, Mark Wells, and and three-year old sister, Eileen Wells.  Also attending was the current author’s Uncle John Hanks and his Aunt Hildreth Hanks and the family’s good friend Rhona Fitzpatrick.  A good time was had by all!! For the current author and his siblings it was a marvelous adventure.  brother The family slept out in a series of camping tents in the campground at the State Fair.  One of the first exhibits the family saw was the early show at the International Harvester tent.  It was quite a show as the Fast-Hitch 300 tractor was shown hitching and unhitching rapidly to the music of a square dance.  Later years at the big International Harvester tent would have the would have Farmall tractors driven through their famous square dance without the Fast Hitch implements, but 1955 was different.  The Fast Hitch on the 300 had to be demonstrated for the farming public in attendance.  The visit to the State Fair was repeated again in 1956 and threatened to become an annual event.  However, in 1957, Uncle John went into the United States Army and the current author’s immediate family rode a passenger train to Elyria, Ohio to see Aunt Hildreth and pick up a new 1957 Plymouth station wagon.  In 1958 the family took the new car on an extensive trip to Seattle , Washington, and back.   The family would not see the State Fair again until 1959.  By this time the Farmall tractors had changed appearance dramatically and the big top tent at the International Harvester exhibit now featured International Model 340 crawlers doing the famous square dance.) 

While the production run of the Model 300 continued for the entire twelve months of 1955 and continued into 1956, production of the 300 ceased in August of 1956.  As a result, the production run of the successor to the Farmall 300 (the Farmall Model 350) did not—according to Fay and Kraushaar’s beautiful book–begin until the November of 1956. 

The model year of 1955, saw the introduction of the whole line of the “Hundred Series” tractors by the  International Harvester Company.  The Hundred Series line of tractors included the larger Model 400 and the smaller Model 200 and Model 100 tractor in addition to the Model 300.  

The production figures of the Farmall Super H and the Farmall 300 are confusing because both Super H and the 300 were produced for only one entire model year each–1952 and 1954, respectively.  Every year has 250 working days excluding Saturday and Sunday of each of 52 weeks in the year.  By using the serial numbers index we can determine how many tractors can be built in a single day at the Rock Island Tractor Works.  Whether the tractor was the Farmall H or the Farmall Super H or the Farmall 300,  the average daily production figure was 85 tractors per day.  As noted above, instead of the January to January, calendar year we must consider the model year which for reasons stated above, must be considered rather than the calendar year.  Instead, of January 1, we look at the August 1 as the beginning of the new model year.  Following this procedure we can determine that the 1955 model year of the Farmall 300 began on August 1, 1954.  and ended on August 1, 1955.  At the rate of production of 85 tractors built per day, the production of the Farmall 300 bearing the Serial No. 22368 occurred on the Monday, July 18, 1955.  Just 10 days prior to the start of the new model year of August, 1955-August, 1956.

When the new Farmall 300 was made available to the public, there were a number of options that were available for the 300.  These options had not been available on predecessors of the 300, i.e. the Farmall Super H or the Farmall H.   First, one of the most common options available on the Farmall 300 was the newly developed “Torque Amplifier” or “T.A.”   After being available in 1954 on the Farmall Super MTA tractor during the short production run of the Super MTA in 1954, the T.A. option was made available on “Hundred Series” tractors, e.g. the Model 400 and Model 300 etc., when the Hundred Series was introduced in the 1955 model year.

An advertisement of the Torque Amplifier or T.A. that was available for the tractors of the new Hundred Series.

 

The 1955 Farmall Model 300  bearing the Serial No. 22368 was first purchased by a farm family from Carver County and probably purchased from an International Harvester dealership in the county seat of Chaska  .  The tractor seems to have been equipped at the factory with every single piece of optional equipment that had been made available for the Model 300.  Besides the Torque Amplifier option which is described above,  No. 22368 is fitted with the optional three hydraulic valve levers located on the right side of the dash board on the operator’s platform.

The Farmall Model 300 bearing the serial number 22368 is fitted with the optional set of three levers, rather than a mere two levers or even a single lever, on the right side of the dash board of the Farmall 300 tractor.

The optional set of three levers means that the particular tractor is equipped with three independent and “live” hydraulic valves on the tractor.   Each lever controls the hydraulic oil valve that regulates the flow of oil pumped down a hose to any  cylinder located on the tractor or located “remotely” on an implement being towed by the tractor.  The hydraulics on the Hundred Series Farmalls are independent “live hydraulics.”  This means that the hydaulics will operate even when the foot clutch on tractor is depressed or disengaged.  

By the time that No. 22368 was purchased in the spring of 2018 by Wells Family Tractors, a Model 33A McCormick-Deering hydraulic loader had been mounted on the tractor.  Accordingly, the lever nearest the dash board controlled the valve that directed hydraulic oil down the hoses to the cylinders located on the arms of the loader which would allow the loader to raise the bucket which was attached to the arms at the front of the tractor.

In addition to being independent hydraulic cylinders on either side of the Model 33A loader controlled by the inside lever of the three hydraulic control levers on the right side of the dash board on the operator’s platform.  The hydraulic cylinders were also “two-way” cylinders.  This means that the cylinders on the arms of the loader can apply pressure and power in both directions–when contracting as well as when extending.  Lifting the loader is effected by pulling back on the “inside” hydraulic control lever nearest the dashboard.  When the same lever is pushed forward the cylinders on the loader can be contracted under power so that the bucket is pressed against the ground and the front wheels of the tractor can be lifted off the ground. 

As noted above, the outside hydraulic lever–furthest from the dashboard–to raise and lowers the Fast-Hitch drawbar.  The cylinder controlling the Fast Hitch drawbar is also a two-way hydraulic cylinder.  Thus, if a person places a couple of large cement blocks under the the drawbar and then lowers the drawbar under power, the rear wheels can be raised off the ground.  Furthermore, because the three hydraulic valves are all independent of each other the operator of the tractor could lift the front wheels of the tractor off the ground by manipulating the lever course nearest the dashboard and at same time lift the rear wheels of the tractor off the ground by manipulating the outside hydraulic lever–furthest from the dashboard–to lower the Fast Hitch drawbar onto the cement blocks. 

Of course, the middle lever of the three-lever set, on No. 22368, controls yet another hydraulic valve that can also act independently and can apply power in a two-way manner.  However, more discussion of the use made of the middle hydraulic lever of the three-lever set on No. 22368 can be found below.   

A rear end view of No. 22368 shows the optional Fast-Hitch drawbar on the tractor.

Yet another option which was factory-installed on No. 22368 is the optional power steering.  The operator of No. 22368 becomes aware of the fact that the International Company installed power steering on the tractor before the operator has even started the engine.  Right in front of the operator at middle of the on the steering wheel is a little light weight aluminum disc bearing the woords “Power Steering.” 

The light-weight aluminum disc at the center of the steering wheel advertises the fact that o. 22368 is fitted with the optional factory-installed power steering. The undamaged condition after 63 years indicates the tractor’s very light use during those 63 years.

A new aluminum power steering insignia which mounts on the center of the steering wheel of tractors of the hundred-series.

Because this power steering insignia was made of light weight aluminum and was mounted on the steering wheel, the aluminum insignia stood the risk of easily becoming damaged even under ordinary tractor use.

Additionally, the cylinders on the Model 33A loader mounted on No. 22368 are “two-way” hydraulic cylinders.  This means that the cylinder can apply pressure and power in both directions–when contracting as well as when extending.  This means that the cylinders on the loader can be contracted under power so that the bucket is pressed against the ground and the front wheels of the tractor can be lifted off the ground.  The other two hydraulic valve levers of the optional three-lever set on No. 22368 can be connected to hoses leading to other hydraulic cylinders.  (Indeed later in this same article discussion will had of connections made to the middle hydraulic lever.)

However, the third lever of the set of three (the outside lever located the furthest from the dash board of the tractor)  is connected to the optional Fast Hitch drawbar of No, 22368.  The optional Fast Hitch drawbar on the Hundred Series tractors is usually painted white and can be raised and lowered by hydraulics controlled by the third (outside) valve lever.  This leaves the middle (or second) lever of the three hydraulic levers on No.  

Continue reading The 1955 Model 300 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 22368.

A 1945 J. I. Case Company Model SC Tractor in Belgrade Township, Nicollet County, Minnesota

The 1945 Case Model SC Tractor in Nicollet County, Minnesota

by

Brian Wayne Wells

           This article remains under construction.  Periodically, new blocks of text will appear in the article and/or   current blocks of text will be corrected.

The J. I. Case Company Model SC tractor.

The J. I. Case Company introduced their first tricycle-style tractor—the Model CC tractor in 1929.  The CC weighed 4,240 lbs. (pounds) and produced 27.37 hp. (horsepower) to the belt pulley and 17.33 hp. to the drawbar.  The CC was advertised as a tractor that could pull a two-bottom plow with 14 inch bottoms.  So the Model CC could perform all the heavy tillage work in the fields of the average farm, just like the “four-wheel” or “standard” tractors that Case had offered the farming public before 1929.  These four-wheel tractors could do all the field work on the farms of North America except one field task–the cultivation of row-crops.  Thus, even with a standard type tractor, the North America farmer could get rid of a large number of horses on the farm that were required for heavy tillage and seed-bed preparation in the Spring of each year.  However, until the introduction of the “row crop” or “tricycle-style” tractors, the North American farmer was required to retain sufficient horses on the farm to be able to cultivate his row crops.

Only with the purchase one of these new row crop tractors, like the Case Model CC could the farmer be able to get rid of all the horses on his farm and farm in a fully mechanized way.  Thus, the Model CC could be used to provide all the power on the farm to perform all the field work over the whole growing season.

A view of the right side of the Case Model CC tractor.  Early versions of the Model CC Case tractor weighed just 3, 640 pounds and had a maufacturer’s suggested price of just $1.025.

The most unique feature about all the Case Model CC was the steering rod than located outside the hood of the tractor on the left side of the tractor.  This rod extended along the left side of the tractor to the front wheels  the tractor.  Because this looked like a convenient place for the chickens, on the farm, to roost during the night, this rod became popularly known as “chicken’s roost.”   Over the entire production from 1929 until 1939, 29,824 Model CC tractors were made.

A left side view of the Case Model CC tractor, showing the unique “chickens roost” style steering rod which was a famous feature of Case tractors.

In 1939, the CC was “styled,” modernized and the engine was upgraded in horsepower to a full 32.92 hp. at the belt pulley or the and 24.39 hp. at the drawbar. The tractor was re-designated as the new Case Model DC-3 tricycle style tractor.  Like the old Model CC, the new Model DC-3 was a tricycle style tractor in order to allow the tractor to be fitted with a mounted cultivator for the easy offered to the farming public in a number of different front-end configurations.  The DC was intended as a tractor which could perform all the field work on the average farm of the Midwestern part of North America, including the cultivation of row crops.  Because of the wide variety of row crops grown in North America, a number of variants of the Model DC were offered to the farming public.  The Case Model DC-3 was available as a narrow front tractor or as a tractor with an adjustable wide front end.   There were also a single wheel front end and a dual wheel narrow front end available to the public.  The J. I. Case Company planned to have the appropriate tractor configured for any farming operation in North America.

The Case Model DC-3 with the adjustable wide front end allowed the front wheels to be positioned wide enough to accomodate a wide variety of row crops.

Instead of being painted gray like the Model CC, the Model DC-3 was painted a reddish-orange color that the J. I. Case Company called “Flambeau Red.”  The DC-3 had a new Case-built engine with a 3-7/8 inch bore and a 5 ½ inch stroke, was commonly fitted with 11.25 by 38 inch rubber tires and weighed 7,010 lbs. Case advertised the DC tractor as a “full three-plow  tractor.”  This meant that the DC-3 could pull a three–bottom plow even with 16 inch bottoms in most plowing conditions.   By 1944, the suggested retail price of the DC was $1,270 as mounted on rubber tires.  During the entire production run of the Model DC-3 from 1939 until 1955, 54,925 DC-3 tractors were manufactured by the J.I. Case Company, or about 3,433 Model DC-3’s for each year of the production rum of the Model DC.

The Case Model DC-3 tractor replaced the Model CC in the Case line of row-crop tractors in 1939.

With the introduction of the DC and the phasing out of the Model CC tractor there was a vacancy in the smaller “two-plow” class of tractors within the J. I. Case Company tractor line.   Accordingly, in 1940, one year after the introduction of the DC-3, the J.I. Case Company introduced the Model SC tractor. The Model SC weighed 4,200 lbs., was fitted with a 2.7 liter four-cylinder engine with a 3 ½ inch bore and a 4 inch stroke which  delivered 21.62. hp to the belt pulley and 16.18 hp. to the drawbar.  The Model SC was painted Flambeau Red to match the Model DC-3 and retained the hand clutch.  However, while the hand clutch lever control on the Model DC-3 was located on the left side of the operator’s platform, the new Model SC had the hand clutch moved to the right side of the operator’s platform.

Case’s trademark, the “chicken’s roost” style steering rod of the Model CC and the Model DC-3 was also retained in the Model SC.  The 11.25 by 38 inch rear rubber tires of the Model DC-3 were also made available for the Model SC.  Like the Model However, the Model SC could be purchased for a much lower price than the DC-3.  Many farmers took advantage of this price difference to purchase the Model SC tractor and the Model SC tractor became the best-selling tractor of the Case Flambeau Red line of tractors.  Over its shorter production run (from 1940 until 1955), a total of 58,991 Model SC tractors (or about 3,933 Model SC’s per year) were produced and sold by the company—this represents a total of 4,066 more SC’s produced by the Case Company than the total number of DC-3 tractors produced by thebover the longer production run of the DC-3.  In other words from 1940 until 1955. there were about 500 more SC tractors produced each year than there were Model DC-3 tractors produced each year during the same period of time.

Among the tractors that flowed out of the J.I. Case Main Works in Racine, Wisconsin and arrived in local Case dealerships across the nation, was the two-plow Case Model SC tractor. In the years before the Second World War and in the immediate post-war years the Model SC actually outsold the larger DC-3 Case tractor.

Of course not every year of the production run from 1940 until 1955 was like the next.  History intervened, during this period of time, in the form of the Second World War, history from 1939 until 1955.  Involvement of the United States in the Second World War dated from the surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 by the Japanese Imperial forces.  Following the Pearl Harbor attack, most heavy industrial companies, like the J. I. Case Company were required by the United States government to join the war effort, as the country fought a desperate war in two separate theaters of operations (Europe and the Pacific).  Production of civilian goods gave way to production for the war effort.  However, it took some time for the various companies to be assigned their government military contracts and to start producing wartime materials.  For the Case Company production of farm tractors at their factory located in Racine, Wisconsin tapered off somewhat gradually in favor of war materials for the war effort.

The factory at Racine, was called the “Main Works.”  The Main Works in Racine, Wisconsin was where the new Model DC and the new Model SC  were produced.  However, in addition to introducing the two-plow Model SC, in 1940, the J.I. Case Company also introduced the the new one-plow tractor of the V-series.  However, rather that manufacturing the V-series tractor at the Main Works, Case opened a new factory in Rock Island, Illinois.  During the Second World War, the “Main Works” became involved in the production of bombs and artillery shells, doors for the Sherman tank and parts for the B-26 bomber.

Sherman M-4 tanks in action in Normandy, France. Here almost every door of the tank is open. Many of these doors were made by the J.I. Case Company under a wartime contract.

The limited amount of tractors that were produced during the war, rolled off the assembly line at the J. I. Case Company Main Works (and the new Rock Island Works), were assigned a serial numbers in sequence regardless of the model. There are no separate serial numbers for the S-series, the D-series or the V-series tractors.  Until 1954, the first two numbers of any Case tractor serial number gave a clue as to the year in which the tractor was assembled at the Main Works.  However, even this seemingly direct approach to the year in which the tractor was clouded by some obscurity.   For example, if the first two numbers of a particular serial number were “44,” this did not mean the tractor was produced in 1944.  Four years must be subtracted from the first two numbers of every serial number to arrive at the actual year that the tractor was built.  Thus, if the the first digits of a given serial number are “44,” then the tractor was actually produced in 1940—not 1944.

A picture showing the location of the Serial Number tag squarely on the “dash board” of the Case Model SC tractor.

Accordingly, in the fifth year of the Model SC production run , a particular Model SC rolled aff the assembly line at the Main Works bearing the Serial Number 4911952.  The first two digits of this particular serial number indicated that this tractor was manufactured at the Main Works in 1945.  Since production in the year 1945 began with the serial number 4900001.  Production of the Model SC with the Serial No. 4911952 must have been produced rather late in the year, 1945.  Indeed, a good guess might be that the tractor was produced in December of 1945.

The war years from 1941 until 1945 also brought many changes to Case dealerships around the nation.  One such Case dealership was located at 202 North Front Street in Mankato, Minnesota.  Since 1910, this dealership had been owned by the J.I. Case Company itself.  In 1922, a young man by the name of Harry Julius William Cutkosky was working as a clerk at the John Peter Canellos billiards room at the Saulpaugh Hotel at the corner of Main and Front Streets in downtown Mankato.

The classic Saulpaugh Hotel at the corner of Main and Front Streets in downtown Mankato, Minnesota .

As such the Case Company dealership was only two blocks north of the Saulpaugh Hotel along Front Street.  Hearing of an job offering and being an ambitious young man with a mechanical bent to his nature, Harry Cutkosky, walked the two blocks north on Front Street to seek better employment at the Case dealership.  Harry did well at the dealership and by 1936 when the J.I. Case Company decided to franchise the dealership into private hands,it was Harry Cutosky that leaped at the chance to buy the franchise/dealership.

Shortly after Harry Cutosky purchased the franchise/dealership in Mankato, ne made another decision that was to prove extremely advantageous for the dealership.  He decided to hire a manager to help him run the dealership on a day by day basis.  For the position of manager of the dealership he turned to Earnest Allen Jones.

Since at least 1930, Earnest Jones had been employed as a shipping clerk at the J.I. Company Case Company Main Factory Works in Racine, Wisconsin.  As the shipping clerk at the Racine factory, Earnest had become familiar with the J.I. Case Company network of dealerships and was perfectly aware of the pre-war sales success of the Cutkowsky dealership in Mankato, Minnesota.  Thus, when Harry Cutkowsky offered to employ Earnest as the manager of his new proprietorship, Earnest anxiously grabbed the chance to manage the successful dealership.  Earnest and and Vivian Maude (Baldwin) Jones and their family of an twelve year-old daughter, Elizabeth Ellyn;, a son, Allen, who was eleven and twin daughters Charlene and Charmaine who were both four years-old, moved to Mankato, Minnesota in 1936 shortly after Harry Cutkowsky had purchased the J.I. Case dealership in Mankato.

In the years following 1936 until the entry of the United States into the Second World War, the Cutkosky dealership operated under the successful teamwork of Harry Cutosky and his manager Earnest Jones.  Soon the dealership made a great reputation for itself all across southern Minnesota and northern Iowa selling Case tractors and farm equipment.

The cast iron statue of a bald eagle perched on a globe of the world. This statue became the most famous trademark of the J.I. Case Company. This statue was nick-named “Old Abe.”  One of the Old Abe cast iron statues was usually found outside each local Case dealership like the Cutkowsky and Jones dealership in Mankato, Minnesota.

In 1941, the United States was suddenly thrust into involvement n the war, by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.  The war, however, imposed a whole new set of problems on the dealership.  Harry Cutkosky and his manager Earnest Jones realized that this was a new world.  To be sure there was a great demand among area farmers for new farm implements and tractors.  However, this large demand could not be satisfied because the entire economy of the United States was being directed toward production for the war effort and there were precious little resources left over for the production of farm machinery and tractors for the civilian market. This meant that farm tractor dealerships around the nation all suffered from having access to far too little product to sell to the farming public.  During the war, the dealership had to struggle just to obtain enough tractors and farm machinery from the Racine Main Works and/or the Rock Island factory Works just to stay in business.  It can not be doubted that the presence of Earnest Jones, with the personal contacts he maintained from his former employment at the Main Works in Racine, Wisconsin aided the Cutosky dealership in obtaining enough tractors and farm machinery and parts to keep their core customers somewhat satified during the war.     .

By 1944, the third year of the war, it was beginning to look as though the war might actually end some time in the near future.  Harry Cutosky and Earnest Jones became encouraged that with the end of the war, peace-time productin would resume and they both felt that the dealership was well-positioned to finally meet their customers full demands for new farm machinery.  To really work efficiently and meet the new economic situation that he expected with the end of the war, Harry Cutosky needed more capital in his dealership.  Accordingly, he offered to sell part of the company to Earnest Jones and make him a full partner.  Thus, in 1945, the dealership or the first time in the Mankato Directory as the “Cutosky and Jones” dealership.

Although, by the end of the Second World War the Case dealership in Mankato was a privately owned partnership called “Cutkowsky and Jones,” the building, located at 202 North Front Street in Mankato, Minnesota, which now housed the “Cutkowsky and Jones” dealership, still bore the name “J. I. Case Threshing Machine Company” across the top of the building.  This picture was actually taken of the building at 202 North Front Street in Mankato, Minnesota in 1910 and reflects fact that prior to becoming the “Cutkowsky and Jones dealership, the Case dealership in Mankato was owned by the a “J. I. Case Company itself.  .

The Second World War ended in the European theater on May 7, 1945, “Victory in Europe Day” or “V-E Day.”  However the war continued in the Pacific theater until “Victory over Japan” or “V-J Day” September 2, 1945.

Finally, government wartime restrictions were rescinded and full industrial production for civilian use returned.  For the J.I. Case Company, this meant full production of the D-series and S-series tractors at the Racine Wisconsin Main Works and full production of the V-series tractors at the Rock Island, Illinois, factory Works.  However, this period of full-production was short-lived.  of d

No. 4911952 arrived at the J.I. Case dealership around New Years Day of 1946, Earnest had become a full partner and the dealership was known as the “Cutkowsky and Jones” dealership.

As consistent readers of this blog will remember, in December of 1945, another partnership had been formed to start a J.I. Case dealership in another small Minnesota town.  This was the parnership of Duane Wetter and Merle Krinke who were forming a dealership in LeRoy, Minnesota.  During December of 1945, Merle Krinke and Duane Wetter were busy buying property in the small town of LeRoy, Minnesota to establish what would become the local Case dealership called the “LeRoy Equipment Company.”  (See the two part series of articles called “The Rise and Decline of the LeRoy Equipment Dealership.” contained at this website.)  The  new dealership of LeRoy Equipment Company was due to open on Tuesday January 29, 1946 and was in drastic need of an inventory of new Case farm tractors and Case farm machinery.  Accordingly, the Model SC tractor bearing the serial number 4911952 could have been sent to this new dealership in LeRoy, Minnesota, to help the new dealership get off the ground.

If 4911852 had been sent to the LeRoy Equipment Company dealership, the tractor might have ended up on the Walter and Clarence Hanson farm three miles east of the village of LeRoy.  As  it was Walter and Clarence Hanson had to wait until sometime after March 10, 1947 for a subsequent Model SC to arrive at the LeRoy Equipment Company to purchase their Model SC tractor.

The Case Main Tractor Works in Racine, Wisconsin was still trying to struggle with the retooling process to convert to production of civilian farm equipment products  The Case Corporation was hardpressed for funds.  Thus, the decision was made to sent No. 4911952 to the veteran dealership with a big reputation for sales (Cutkowski and Jones dealership in Mankato, Minnesota) rather than to a new startup  dealership (the LeRoy Equipment Company in LeRoy, Minnesota) with no reputation at all–yet.  Accordingly, No. 4911952  was sent to the Cutkowski and Jones  partnership dealership” located at 202 No. Main Street in Mankato, Minnesota.

Then the United States was attacked at Pearl Harbor in December of 1941.  Like nearly all other manufacturing concerns the Case Company was  greatly curtailed in its production of civilian materials including tractors and farm machinery by the government.  For the duration  of the war all manufacturing was to be directed toward the war effort in Europe and the Pacific.

With the return of peace in September of 1945, production of the tractors had just begun again. J. I. Case Company was still  struggling to retool for full time civilian production.  On December 26, 1945, shortly after No. 4911952 rolled off the assembly line in Racine, Wisconsin, the Case Tractor Works at Racine, Wisconsin was hit by a labor strike by the United Auto Workers.  This labor strike continued for fifteen more months until March 10, 1947.

This 1936 photo shows the J. I. Case Tractor Plant which was located just south of Racine, near today’s intersection of Highways 11 and 32. From December 26, 1945 until March 10, 1947 the UAW (United Auto Workers) union conducted a labor strike against the Tractor Works which resoulted in a total halt of production of tractors for Case tractors until March 10, 1947.

During the whole period of the strike, the Case Tractor Works was totally closed down and did not produce a single farm tractor.  Finally on March 10, 1947 the United Auto Workers and the Case Company signed a new labor collective bargaining agreement and the labor strike ended.  Finally, production of farm tractors was begun again at the Case Tractor Works in Racine Wisconsin.

When No. 4911952 arrived at the Cutkowsky dealership just after New Years Days of 1946, the dealership had already been approached by a potential buyer for the little Model SC tractor.  This potential buyer was a farmer of a 160-acre farm in Belgrade Township in Ncollet County, Minnesota.  This was our Belgrade Township farmer.

A township map of Nicollet County  showing the location of Belgrade Township in the southern most or lowest most point on the map.

Our Belgrade Township farmer’s mother had inherited the 160 acre farm upon the sudden  death of her husband (our Belgrade Township farmer’s  father) in 1939.  Immediately, the total responsibility for the farm fell to our Belgrade Township farmer.  Even before the death of his father, our Belgrade Township farmer had already been actively operating a great deal  of the work on the farm: planting the crops, spending endless hours cultivating the corn crop and finally harvesting the corn and other crops on the farm, i.e. hay and oats.

Although our Belgrade Township farmer had no soybeans on his own farm, he primarily  used the A-6 to combine his oat crop every year.  However, in the post-war era he also used the combine to do a little custom work in the neighborhood–sometimes combining the soybean crops of his neighbors.

The farm was a diversified operation with a Holstein cow dairy operation requiring milking every morning and evening.  They sold the whole milk obtained from their “twice-daily” milking of their Holstein dairy herd to the cooperative dairy located just across the Belgrade township boundary  line to the north in Oshawa  Township.

A Holstein milking herd cows grazing in a pasture on a small diversified farm in the Midwest, much like the home farm of our Belgrade Township farmer.

Our Belgrade Township farmer’s father also had raised pigs for market.  The herd of pigs on the farm had consisted of a number of sows of different breeds and largely “cross breeds.”   There was usually one boar on the farm at any one time which would be purchased for the job of siring the litters of little pigs that would be born each year.  Over the years that  our Belgrade Township farmer had grown up on the farm, prior to the recent war, he remembered a succession  of different boars on the farm–one after another over the years.

Big Bill, owned by Buford Butler, a farmer from Jackson, Tennessee, was renowned as the largest pig that ever lived. When this picture was taken in 1933 Big Bill had obtained the weight of 2,552lbs.  This was an extreme, but this  style of pig was favored by pork meat buyers as a lard pig in the 1930s and early 1940s.  Big Bill came to the attention of the national public because of the “Largest Boar contests” that were popular in the Midwestern United States, especially in conjunction with the various state fairs held in Iowa, Minnesota and Illinois and other states in the 1930s.

Most sows could be counted on to produce litters of baby pigs for only about three (3) or four (4)  years out of their life.  Older sows would begin having less pigs per litter until they began to fail getting pregnant at all.  Accordingly, our Belgrade Township farmer’s father would have to plan ahead and save out some of the best looking gilts of the various litters over the years to replace some of sows that he was phasing out of the herd because of age.

This meant that the young gilts that were to become the new sows on the farm would be the actual daughters of the present boar.  Thus, the reason for changing boars every three years or so was to avoid any problems with reduced disease immune resistance and low growth rates that might result from this “in-breeding,” both our Belgrade Township farmer and his father would simply start searching for a new boar.  Among the succession of boars on the farm one boar that stood out the most in the memory of our Belgrade Township farmer was a particular red -colored boar.  This red boar struck him as a child and stuck in his memory merely because of his red color.  This red color stood out in contrast to all the white, black and spotted “black and white”  sows on the farm.

The “red colored” Duroc breed stands out against all of the plethora of other white, black and spotted breeds.  Although this is young boar, he bears all the characteristics of a proper thin style bacon pig that fits the model style desired by the post-war consuming public.

During the years that the red boar was on the farm our Belgrade Township farmer use to love the way the boar left his finger prints on all the litters of baby pigs born during those years.  All the litters of baby pigs born during those years, usually contained one or two little red pigs.  This made the red pigs standout even more in the mind of our Belgrade Township farmer.

The existence of a few red pigs in the litters born during our Belgrade Township farmers first year in the Belgrade Boosters 4-H Club made a noteworthy effect on our Belgrade Townxship farmer as a young teenager and he chose one of the red pigs as his 4-H project for that first year. This started a life-long fascination with Duroc pigs for our Belgrade Township farmer.

As an early teenager, our Belgrade Township farmer had joined the local 4-H club–the “Belgrade Boosters”–and when he chose a 4-H project to show at the Nicollet County Fair–he chose one of the newborn  gilts out of one of the litters born that particular year.   that had been born that year.  Needless to say, the gilt was one of the little red pigs that had captured his imagination at this early date.  He also learned about the characteristics of the Duroc breed.  He learned that the Duroc pork meat tended to be “redder” in color that the pork meat of other breeds of pig.  Additionally, the Duroc meat was regarded as having ” well marbled” fat.  The importance of this feature of well marbled fat in Duroc meat will be explained below.

Marbling of fat in beef is something that is to be avoided in beef because it defeats the idea of “trimming the fat” to avoid consumption  unsaturated fats.

In the years to come during the post-war era the breeder of pigs tended look for pigs that would be thinner in structure than the hugely fat pigs which were commonly produced during the war.  These huge pigs were intentionally grown  for their fat which could be rendered into lard for baking during the pre-war era.  During the Second World War the lard from pork was used for making munitions for the war effort,  Thus, fat pigs were desired by the pork buyers in the market.  Breeders of pigs responded to this desired feature and raised overly fat hogs for the market.

Prize market hogs being shown off for pictures in the 1930s. These market pigs were considered “just right” for the market in the 1930s. Now they are considered very much over weight. Today the pigs would be docked for being too fat and over weight.

However, in the post-war market the buyers began to respond to the consumers who now wanted less cholesterol, grease and fat  in their food.  Now the pork buyers began to look for thinner market hogs that would have less fat.  Thus, in the post-war years the breeders of pigs had to make a 180 degree turn in their thinking.  Now they tended look for pigs that would be thinner in structure than the hugely fat pigs which were commonly produced during the war.

The 2011 Weight Division Champion in Monterey County, California, This champion pig shows all the desirable features in a thin and long bodied modern market hog.

(Still later in 1987, in the face of a huge decrease in beef [or red meat] consumption in the United States from 69.5 lbs. per person in 1987 to 62 lbs per person in 2003, pork producers spent 7 million dollars to advertise pork as the “other white meat,” seeking a closer association of pork with chicken meat in the mind of the consumer rather than an association with beef–the red meat.  In response to this advertising campaign, pork consumption in the United States rose from 45.6 lbs. per person in 1987, to a peak of 49.3 lbs in 1999 before leveling off and dropping to an average of 48.5 lbs. per person in 2003.   What was the cause if this fall off jn popularity in pork as a replacement for beef?  One answer can’t be the only reason.  However, it may be speculated that as pork became leaner, the meat lost its flavor.  (This would be consistent with all the complaints which have been frequently heard since 1987 that pork chops simply do not taste the same as they used to.)

Not take long after he joined the Belgrade Boosters 4-H  club, for our Belgrade Township farmer to learn that the most popular of all the red-colored pig breeds in the United States was the Duroc breed.  This was the correct name for the breed of pigs that, until now, he had merely been calling “red pigs.”  He learned that these pigs had simply been called “Red Hogs” when the breed was developed and introduced into New Jersey in 1812.  Breeding and development of the pigs in New Jersey led to a breed that was called “Jersey Reds,”  These Jersey Reds pigs were noted for “farrowing” (giving birth to) large litters of baby pigs.  Additionally,  the Jersey Reds were known for their rapid ability to gain weight.

In 1823, Isaac Frink bought one red boar out of a litter of 10 pigs owned by Frank Kelsey.  The parents of the litter of 10 pigs probably came from England.  Frink brought the boar back to his home in Milton in Saratoga County, New York and began a breeding program on his farm.  Frank Kelsey had been known locally as the owner of a champion race named “Duroc.”  Accordingly, Isaac Frink named the red boar that he had purchased from Frank Kelsey after this horse–Duroc .  This is how the whole breed that descended from the  combination of Jersey Reds and the descendants of Isaac Frink’s New York herd came to be the breed of pigs called the Duroc breed.

The American Duroc-Jersey Association was established in 1883 for the registration and improvement of the Duroc Breed.  The first showing of pigs dedicated to the Duroc breed was held at the 1893 World’s Fair held in Chicago, Illinois.  This first show featuring Duroc pigs created a great deal of notoriety at the Chicago World’s Fair.  Due to the rapid growth of the Duroc breed following the 1893 Worlds Fair, many more organizations promoting and advertising the Duroc breed sprang up across the nation.  Eventually, all  these organizations were merged into the United Duroc

Prior to his father’s sudden death, our Belgrade Township farmer had  been anticipating obtaining a farm of his own and starting farming on his own.  Indeed, he had been dating a young girl.  Together they had talked of getting married and getting a house of their own .  However, at the time of the death of his father,  our Belgrade Township farmer and this girl friend had drifted apart.  At the time, he suspected that this distance that grew up between he and this girl was brought about by her recognition that our Belgrade Township farmer would be forced into handling the farm of his father and moving into his mother’s house.  He did not feel that he could do anything else.  So the relationship sort of faded and eventually they each went their own way.

His current wife and he had met and started dating after he had settle into his situation on the farm living in house with his mother and his two bothers.  They had re gotten together h, indeed, had moved into the house of his mother, because neither of his two younger brothers was prepared to .  However, both of his younger brothers were almost ten years younger than our Belgrade Township farmer and were, at time of their father’s death, much too young to operate the whole farm by themselves.  handle the they

Production of the Model SC Case continued until 1954.  Over the full production run of the Model SC tractor, from 1940 until 1954, a total of 58991 individual SC tractors were made.  This made the Case Model SC, the most popular of all Case tractors.  More intermediate two-plow Model S-series tractors were manufactured and sold by the J. I. Case Company than either the larger Model D-series three -plow tractor or the smaller one-plow Model V-series tractors.

The particular Model SC tractor bearing the Serial Number 4911952 was shipped to the Cutkowski and Jones Case equipment dealership in Mankato, Minnesota.  Eventually, No. 4911952 was sold by Cutkowshi and Jones to a particular farmer operating a farm in western Belgrade Township about 3 or 4 miles to the north of North Mankato on County Road #8 in Nicollet County Minneota.  This was the farm of our Belgrade Township farmer.   Sold into bankruptcy and No. 4911952 was sold to an auction house in Mankato kept No. 4911952 inside a storage shed or garage until an auction was held a couple months later.  At the auction, Ken Weilage purchased No. 4911925 and a couple of other tractors and took the tractors to his 5-acre hobby farm located on the east side of the Hwy. #169 between Mankato and St. Peter, Minnesota.

This hobby farm had originally been a working farm but in the 1960s the arable land of the farm was surveyed and separated from the building site of the farm.  The arable land was then sold to a neighboring farmer and the building site was sold to man who worked as a financial services manager named Ken Wielage (Tel: [507] 625-4810), who also had a hobby of collecting and restoring old farm tractors.  At this stage, No. 4911952 went through its first repainting and restoration.  Once the restoration was complete, the tractor was driven by Ken Weilage in a number of parades.  In about 1990 the tractor was sold to group of about ten (10) neighbors, who all lived along Washington Boulevard on the shore of Lake Washington, near the village of Madison Lake, Minnesota.  This group of neighbors was led by John Pfau, the owner of a number of Taco John restaurant franchised in Mankato, St. Peter and New Ulm.  John Pfau was the person who actually found the tractor was for sale by Ken Wielage, the late Ernie Weber, Gordon Strusz (at 4524 Washington Blvd. Madison Lake, Minnesota and Tel. [507] 243-3380); Ray Dumbrowski; and  John D. Jacoby who became the person who was most involved with the operation storage and repair of the tractor for the last 20 years.  At first, Washington Boulevard was a gravel rode.  The neighbors used No. 4911952 to pull an old steel-wheeled grader up and down Washington Boulevard to grade and maintain the road and the tractor was used twice a year to put the neighbors docks in Lake Washington in the spring and pulling the docks out of the waster in the autumn.

In 2013 through 2015 No. 4911952 was displayed on the Mike McCabe farm as a tractor for sale and there was seen by the current author in April of 2015 was and purchased for the Wells Family Farms collection of restored tractors. No. 4911952 is currently undergoing its second restoration.

Farming with a Coop E-3 Tractor in Illinois Part 3: The Owatonna Manufacturing Company

Farming in Illinois with the Coop Model E-3 Tractor

 (Part 3 of 3 Parts): The Kewanee Belt and Conveyor Company

by

Brian Wayne Wells

This article remains under construction.  From time to time new blocks of text will appear or present blocks of text will be corrected.

 

Throughout the history of North American agriculture, farmers have been attempting to solve their own problems.  Farmers have repeatedly joined together in societies and organization.  As noted in a previous article (See the article on this blog entitled “Farming in Illinois with the Model E-3 Tractor Part 1 of 3  Parts: The Farmers Union”) some farmers banded together in organizations like the Grange and the National Farmers Union to 1.) boost the money that farmers received for their crops through  cooperative marketing of their crops and  2.) save money through cooperative purchasing of their farm equipment, fuels and other products used in raising and harvesting those crops on the farm.

Local cooperatives engaged in the cooperative marketing of farm crops were usually centered around cooperatively-owned  creameries and grain elevators located in small towns across the vast agricultural areas of the United States–the  Midwest, the Great Plains, the agricultural South and the Central and Imperial Valleys of California.  As time went by, and the local cooperatives began to expand into the cooperative purchasing of products used by farmers, the local cooperatives began to build or purchase their own lumberyards, gasoline service stations and farm implement dealerships which began to sell cooperatively purchased products to their farmer members at reduced prices.

One member of the National Farmers Union who was currently farming in Sterling Township in Whiteside County, Illinois.  He was a “true believer” in the value of the cooperatives to the small farmer and tried at all instances to purchase all his supplies from local Cooperatives.  Especially, those cooperatives that were connected with the Farmers Union.  Our Sterling Township farmer had moved to this farm in Illinois in 1945 from  his father’s farm located near Baraboo, Wisconsin.  Due to a lack of any local cooperative that sold “COOP” farm machinery and farm tractors, our Sterling Township farmer tended to buy his farm machinery at the Sauk County Farmers Union Cooperative in Baraboo, Wisconsin.

However, there was some farm machinery that was not available through the COOP line of the farm implements marketed by the National Farmers Union.  For these pieces of farm machinery, our Sterling Township farmer was required to turn to other private company suppliers.  As noted previously, he had purchased an 8-foot hydraulically controlled trailing double disc from a local dealer in Sterling, Illinois.  This disc had been manufactured by the Kewanee Manufacturing Company of Kewanee, Illinois.  Kewanee, Illinois was situated in Henry County, Illinois, which was located immediately to the south of Whiteside County.

A county map of the State of Illinois showing the location of Henry County the home county of the Kewaunee Manufacturing Company. The County immediately to the north of the highlighted Henry County is Whiteside County Illinois, the home county of our Sterling Township farmer.

 

Even though our Sterling Township farmer had been impressed by the hydraulically controlled transportable disc produced by the Kewanee Manufacturing Company, he was not so impressed by the portable farm elevator that was also produced by the Kewaunee Company.

The Kewaunee Company had been making portable farm elevators since 1922 when the company purchased a line of portable farm  elevators from the Hart Grain Weigher Company of Peoria, Illinois.  At this time, the portable elevator made by Kewaunee was a composit of wood and steel construction.  In 1926, Kewaunee introduced their “all-steel” elevator.  In anticipation of the production the new farm Kewaunee elevator the Kewaunee Company had moved out of its old facilities to a new concrete block building locate on the corner of Park and Commercial Streets in Kewaunee in 1922.  However, sales of the new portable Kewaunee farm elevator grew so rapidly that the Company was forced to move to still larger facilities in 1927.

In 1922 the Kewaunee Machinery Company inherited a portable farm elevator made of wood and steel when the Company purchased a line of portable elevator line from the Hart Grain Weigher Company.

 

During the first few years on the new farm in Sterling Township, Illinois,  our Sterling Township farmer had been forced to borrow a portable elevator from his neighbors merely to move the oat crop from the wagon to his granary and to move the ear corn from the wagons which were coming into the yard to the corn crib.  to the   to

  In 1888 the Owatonna Manufacturing Company was founded in Owatonna, Mnnesota.  Farmers soon recognized the OMC paint colors of red and lime green on the grain drills, seeders and balers.  In 1928, OMC began making portable farm elevators in 1928 after purchasing the Diedrick Company.  Indeed, for a while OMC continued the production of the Diedrich (even under the Diedrich name)

The first OMC factory in Owatonna, Minnesota, in 1888.

 

Farmers soon recognized the OMC paint colors of red and lime green on the grain drills, seeders. elevators and and balers.

 

The Owatonna Manufacturing Company of Owatonna, Minnesota, specialized in farm equipment specifically seeders and portable farm elevators.

Owattonna

In 1965, OMC  introduced their first “Mustang” skid steer.

 

In 1997 Mustang was separated from OMC and sold to the Gehl Corporation

 

OMC, itself was sold to the Manitou Americas Inc. corporation.    as being

As the mid-1950s went on, the Cockshutt faced dwindling Meanwhile,  the National Farm Machinery Cooperative started losing market share in the farm tractor and machinery market as a result Cockshutt shares return egt.  arm

 

Eventually, our Sterling township farmer traded the COOP Model E-3 tractor, bearing the serial No. 31591, in on the purchase of a newer more powerful Cockshutt tractor.  No. 31591 was sold from one owner to another when the tractor ended up in the hands of an owner than sought to made the Model E-3 into a tractor that could be used in professional antique tractor pulling contests.  Accordingly, the hydraulics which had been installed on No. 31591 by our Sterling Township farmer under the seat on the operator’s platform.  At the same time the tractor was repainted with the red and cream colors to make No. 31591 look like a post-1955 Cockshutt.

When purchased by the current author, the COOP Model E-3 tractor bearing the serial number 31591 had been largely repainted to look like a post-1955 model Cockshutt Model 30.

 

to make the tractor t pullingthe

Coop Farming in Illinois Part 2: The Coop Model E-3 Tractor Bearing the Serial Number #31591

Coop Farming in Illinois: The Coop Model 2A Tractor

 (Part 2 of 3 Parts)

by

Brian Wayne Wells

This Article remains under construction.  Periodically blocks of text will appear and/or be corrected in the process of construction.

A closeup view of the new decals that appeared on the COOP Model E-3 tractor after 1949.  These are the decals that appeared on No. 31591 when it rolled off the assembly line at the Cockshutt Works in Brandford, Ontario, Canada in 1951.

 

            Asa noted earlier, the 1951 Coop Model E-3 tractor that had been purchased by our Sterling Township farmer bore the serial number #31591.  (See the prior article in this this series called “Farming with the Coop Model E-3 Tractor in Illinois” contained at this website. )  Also as noted in that prior article, No. #31591 rolled off the assembly line at the Brantford, Ontario, Canada, on in the afternoon of Monday, October 20, 1951.  No. #31591 was shipped out on a Canadian National Railroad train.

Logo of the Canadian National Railway, the government owned and operated railroad which served the Brantford, Ontario community.

Although, Sterling Township was located in Whiteside County in the state of Illinois, No. #31591 was actually purchased from the Sauk County Farmers Union Cooperative store in Baraboo, Wisconsin.  Baraboo, Wisconsin, was actually, his childhood home.   He had been born and raised on a farm in Troy Town in Sauk County. Wisconsin.  Indeed his father and younger brother still lived on and worked the “home farm” in Troy Town.

Our Sterling Township farmer had been raised in a “Farmers Union” family and he had a strong loyalty to the National Farmers Union ideal of banning together to sell their crops to obtain the best price for their crops and banning together to purchase the products that farm families needed on the farm in order to obtain the lowest price possible for their necessary expenses.  However, there were no Farmers Union stores anywhere in his area of Illinois.  Indeed he had been unable to find any Farmers Union Stores anywhere in entire state of Illinois.  So he continued to go out of his way to shop at the Sauk County Farmers Union store in his childhood home town of Baraboo, Wisconsin.  He, usually stocked up on purchases at the store whenever he and his wife travelled back to Baraboo to visit his family.  In this way he would still get his annual Farmers Union dividend for the goods that he purchased from the store in Baraboo just as he always had always done.  Indeed, he anticipated that his purchase of No. #31591 in 1951 would add rather substantially to the dividend he would receive in 1952.

The Farmers Union ideal had two sides. Banning together in the Farmers Union allowed the farmers to purchase their own granaries to control the sale of their crop in order to get the best price.  This was the “selling side” of the Farmers Union.

The Farmers Union cooperatively owned grain elevator of Centralia, Kansas–an example of the “selling side” of the Farmers Union ideal.

As noted in the first article in this series noted above, there was also a “buying side” of the Farmers Union.  Farmers hoped to also ban together to keep their expenses as low as possible.  Stores like the Farmers Union store in Baraboo, Wisconsin, sold a whole line of gasoline, grease and oil products at the lowest price possible for their farmer/members to use in their farming operations.

The COOP retail store and gas station of Jamestown, North Dakota, looks like the Sauk County Farmers COOP store in Baraboo, Wisconsin might have looked in 1943.  The International Harvester Model D-15, three-quarter (3/4) ton truck is a 1937 or 1938 D-15 truck,  Thus the picture was likely taken during the Second World War.    Note the Duplex Machiney Company-made Model 3 tractor on the right side of the picture.  This is one of the larger (28 drawbar horsepower) standard (non-tricycle) tractors that was being made in 1937-1938 for the Grain Belt region of the United States. After Duplex went out of business in 1939 the Model 3 continued to be made by other companies until 1950.

In order to expand the buying side of the Farmers Union operation, local Farmers Union cooperatives across the United States, interested in making inexpensive farm machinery available to their members came together, in 1942, to form the National Farm Machinery Cooperative.

Newspaper clippings showing aerial photos of the Bellevue Ohio and Shelbyville, Indiana factories of the National Farm Machinery Cooperative.  The factory works at Bellevue, Ohio formerly belonged to the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company.

The National Farm Machinery Cooperative or NFMC, set a goal of providing a “full line” of farm machinery for cooperative farm members all across the United States.  NFMC  envisioned selling a full line of farm machinery under the COOP name in the United States through a large number of local farm cooperatives.

Prior to the founding of NFMC, various ad hoc groups of cooperatives across the nation  had already developed a close contractual relationship with the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company  of Bellevue, Ohio, by purchasing farm machinery and selling the machinery to their members.  These individual “supply” contracts with Ohio Cultivator had allowed these ad hoc groups of cooperatives to purchase the machinery in bulk at low prices and to pass the savings along to their member/farmers in the form of initial low retail prices and in the form of annual dividends to those members.  Formation of National Farmers Cooperative had the effect of broadening and streamlining this operation.  More cooperatives from all across the nation would now have access to the line of farm machinery made by the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company.  This meant even more savings that could be passed on to Farmers Union members.

An advertisement of a local dealership of the Ohio Cultivator Company. Note at the very bottom of the sign the “Black Hawk” name is prominately seen on the sign.

The Ohio Cultivator Company was founded by Harlow Case Stahl.  Born on February 12, 1849 near, Ballville in Sandusky County Ohio.   Harlow Stahl had married Annie Charlotte Mitchell on October 21, 1874.  On his parents farm, Harlow grew tired of endlessly trudging along behind the simple one or two shovel horse-drawn cultivators which were common at the time.

A walk-behind horse-drawn one-row cultivator headed toward the corn field in the hot summer sun.

In 1878, Harlow worked together with a local blacksmith in Freemont to develop a horse-drawn cultivator which had wheels which straddled a single row of corn with shovels on both sides of the row and had a seat at the rear which allowed the farmer to ride as he cultivated his corn.  This new cultivator was called the “Fremont cultivator.”  The Fremont cultivator was credited as being the first successfully designed riding cultivator which was successfully marketed.

The sucess of the Ohio Cultivator company with their new riding cultivator led to a number of other companies producing similar riding cultivators. Here a pair of horses are pulling a New Century Company riding cultivator in the corn fields.

The Freemont Cultivator was a success from the very beginning.  In the very first year of production, 87 Fremont Cultivators were built and 81 of these were sold to local farmers.  By 1882, production and sales had risen to 1,000 culivators in one year.  In 1885, Stahl moved his cultivator production to a larger factory located in Bellevue, Ohio.   At about this the business was incorporated as the Ohio Cultivator Company.  Later the company was re-named the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company. 

The Famous Ohio Cultivator Company used the profits from the record sales of the Freemont Cultivator to add a manure spreader, a hay mower,  a  soil pulverizer and other farm implements to expand the number farm implements that the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company offered to the farming public.   However, even with this expansion of the line of implements, the Ohio Cultivator Company was still a “full line” manufacturer of farm equipment.  At this time of tractor power farming, Ohio Cultivator needed to have a farm tractor to offer to the farming public in order to be a “full line” seller of farm machinery.

An advertisement of the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company advertisement which highlights the “Black Hawk” name at the top of the advertisement and other new items of farm machinery which were being added to the Ohio Cultivator Company line of farm machinery.

(In actual fact the Ohio Cultivator Company had, indeed, been a full line seller of farm equipment for a short while in its earlier history.  In 1929, Ohio Cultivator had signed a supply contract with the General Tractor Company of Cleveland, Ohio, to purchase a number of farm tractors to be sold together with Ohio Cultivator implements and through the Ohio Cultivator sales and distribution network.  While this relationship lasted, Ohio Cultivator was a “full line” provider of farm equipment including a farm tractor.  Alas, however, General Tractor went out of business and disappeared from the farm machinery market and Ohio Cultivator lost its supplier of farm tractors and once again became a “shortline seller of farm machinery.  Nonetheless, because of the newly expanded line of farm machinery, Ohio Cultivator was one of the a leading shortline manufacturer and sellers of farm machinery.

So in 1943, when the newly incorporated National Farm Machinery Cooperative  had an opportunity to actually purchase the whole of the Ohio Cultivator Company, NFMC recognized the purchase as promising an opportunity for even further streamlining and savings in the sales of farm machinery to NFMC member/customers.

After purchasing the Famous Ohio Cultivator Company, the National Farm Machinery Company did not waste any time in advertising their newly acquired farm machinery products.

An advertising brochure of the Black Hawk Model 31-T manure Spreader, now being sold as a Co-op manure spreader.

Still, NFMC needed to have a farm tractor available for sale under the COOP name.  As noted above, the acquisition of Ohio Cultivator did not solve this problem.  Accordingly, NFMC began to look around for a tractor manufacturer who would supply a tractor at an acceptable price which could make NFMC a “full line” seller of farm machinery.

Before the birth of NFMC, various groups of cooperatives across the United States had signed contracts at various times with the Allis-Chalmers Company of West Allis, Wisconsin , the Oliver Farm Equipment Company of Charles City, Iowa, the Huber Company of Marion, Ohio and finally the Duplex Machinery Company  of Battle Creek, Michigan, to provide tractors which could be sold under the COOP name.  However, the last contractual relationship with Duplex for a tricycle-style row crop tractor–the COOP Model 1– had ended in 1938.  The story of these earlier contractual relationships with tractor companies to acquire tractors to be sold under the COOP name.     Accordingly, the local cooperatives of the United States once again found themselves without a tractor to tractor to sell to their members which bore the name COOP on the hood.

A 1935 Huber Company Model S tractor.  The Huber Company of Marion, Ohio was just one of the tractor manufacturing concerns with which the National Farm Machinery Cooperative (NFMC) attempted to negotiate a requirements contract to supply tractors needed by NFMC to sell to their members.

Thus, as early as 1944, NFMC began negotiating with the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company of Brantford, Ontario, Canada to once again resolve this lack of a farm tractor for the COOP line of farm equipment.  After the war ended and the wartime restrictions on the production of civilian farm machinery were lifted both in Canada and the United States a contract was signed between NFMC and Cockshutt which suddenly made the National Farm Machinery Cooperative, NFMC,  the primary United States outlet for the line of Cockshutt farm machinery and the new and very modern Cockshutt Model 30 tractor.  The Model 30 was scheduled to go into production at the Cockshutt Works in Brantford, Ontario.   (Under the terms of this contract NFMC became the predominent retailer of but was not the only retail outlet for Cockshutt tractors in the United States.  A small number of Cockshutt 30 tractors were sold under the “Farmcrest” label by the small Minneapolis, Minnesota headquartered Gambles/Skogmo chain of hardware stores.  As noted in the earlier article cited above also starting in 1947.)

A store-wide sale at a typical Gambles hardware store.

From Cockshutt’s point of view, the deal concluded with the NFMC meant that Cockshutt would be able to break into the United States market with a corporate entity that already had an extensive retail dealership network.  This was the major benefit to the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company would recieve from the deal.  Cockshutt’s  entire line of farm machinery would be available for sale in the huge United States farm market.

On the NFMC side of the ledger, the deal with Cockshutt fit the long range goal of the NFMC to become a “full line” farm equipment seller.  As noted in an earlier article on this website–“Farming in Illinois with a COOP Model E-3 Tractor (Part I): The Farmers Union,”–the Farmers Union having greatly expanded their farmer-member’s ability to sell their own grain and corn at the best price available by increasing the network of local cooperative grain elevators in various small towns across the upper Midwest and the Great Plains of the United States, the Farmers Union now sought to build up the “buyer” side of their local cooperatives by increasing the amount of farm implements and supplies that the farmer could buy from their local cooperatives and be able to pay the lowest price for those implements and supplies.

Because there were no active Co-op retail sales outlets available in his new home state of Illinois, our Sterling Township farmer purchased all his new Co-op farm machinery from the Sauk County Farmers Union Co-operative in Baraboo, Wisconsin.  Baraboo, Wisconsin retained a place Baraboo in his heart because he had been born and raised in Baraboo.  Indeed his family still lived in the Troy Town area near Baraboo.  His father and youngest brother still farm the “home farm” where he had been  raised and they still shopped for all of their farm machinery and products at the Sauk County Farmers Union retail store.

Before this building located at 325 Lynn Street, in Baraboo, Wisconsin, was “Jim’s Truck and Auto Repair and, thus, a “Good Year Tire Company” dealership, the building housed the Sauk County Farmers Co-operative retail store outlet located in Baraboo.

As noted in the first article in this series, both our Sterling Township farmer and his father were “true believers” in the Farmers Union philosophy.  As such , he tended to favor all Co-op machinery over any machinery made by private (for profit) companies.  Indeed, as noted in the first article in this series, our Sterling Township farmer’s father had purchased one  of the first new Cockshutt-made Model E-3 tractors that had arrived at the Sauk County Farmers Union dealership in Baraboo in the spring  of 1946.  Ever since his father had purchased this tractor, our Sterling Township farmer had been looking forward to upgrading his farming operation with a new Model E-3.  However, during the time that he had been working his farm in Sterling Township in Whiteside County, Illinois, something had always come up which required him to postpone the decision to buy a new tractor.  First there was the wet year of 1947, when the crop yield had been cut by the continuous heavy rains throughout the spring and early summer of 1947.  Then, there were the twin growing seasons of 1948 and 1949.  Both seasons were bumper crop years in corn and soybeans.  However, the glut of crop that came onto the market in those two years, depressed market prices during those two years.

Furthermore, his family was growing during this time with a son in  1948, a daughter in 1950 and twin girls in late 1951. One thing after another had led him postpone his dreams of each year to

However, during the entire time that our Sterling Township farmer had lived in Illinois, he had never seen a Coop tractor or machinery dealership in the State of Illinois.  There just did not seem to be any retail outlets for Coop products anywhere in Illinois.

Accordingly, our Sterling Township farmer tended to continue shopping at the Sauk County Farmers Union Cooperative located at 325 Lynn Street in Baraboo.  He tended to stock up on Coop products at the Cooperative  every time he and his wife and growing family went back to Wisconsin to visit his parents and youngest brother now living on the family home farm in the Troy Town community near Baraboo.

all over the state of Illinois, small companies had sprung up that were manufacturing  new and improved farm implements and machinery.  Accordingly

Co-op tractors and machinery reflected many of the latest improvements which was featured on other brands of farm tractors and farm machinery.  Some of the improvements featured on the Co-op farm machinery and tractors were actually limited to Co-op machinery and tractors and did not appear on machinery made by other (for profit) tractor manufacturers.

However, all modern improvements on farm machinery were not a monopoly with Co-op farm machinery only.   One of the small companies which was producing farm machines for profit, was located just south of our Sterling Township farmer’s home in Whiteside County, Illinois.  This was the Kewanee Machinery and Conveyor Company located in Henry County which bordered Whiteside County on the south.  Henry County contained the small manufacturing city of Kewanee, Illinois.  This was where the Kewanee Company was based and from which the Company derived its name. (Thanks to the July 28, 1986 article in the “Around Town” column of the Kewanee Courier-Star newspaper written by David Clarke and the files at the Kewanee Historical Society, we have a good outline of the history of the Kewanee Machinery and Conveyor Company.) 

The Kewanee Company had actually begun its existence as the Kewanee Corn Hanger Company–after its first successful product–the seed corn drying hangerIn the years prior to the production of hybrid seed corn, farmers used to walk through their corn fields, looking for the best ears of corn that could be saved to be used for seed corn in the next spring.  By saving only the best ears the farmer was attempting to use the process of artificial selection to improve his corn crop.    Wire and string were used to tie these special ears of seed corn together and hang them up inside the granary out of the winter elements and suspended away from the reach of rodents.  In 1911, George Hurff and Benjamin Franklin (called B. F.) Baker submitted an application to the U.S. Patent Office for a  corn hanger which could be used to dry these selected ears of seed corn.

In the next year, 1912, Wallace Glidden, Hurff’s son-in-law incorporated a company which would market the corn hangers to the farming public.  This company was called the Kewaunee Corn Hanger Company and was based at 121 Loomis Street in Kewanee.  The Kewanee Company was a family business. Wallace Glidden had been employed at the Kewanee Boiler Company, where he had met Benjamin Franklin Baker (popularly known as B.F. Baker), who was the boss of the company.  It was B. F. Baker that provided most of the financing for the new business.  Wallace Glidden’s own younger brother Raymond Boyd Glidden, become the manager of the Kewaunee Corn Hanger Company.  In 1916, the name of the company was changed to the Kewaunee Implement Company.

A 1927 advertisement of the the ear corn drying hanger made by the Kewaunee Implement Company.

The corn drying hanger proved to be a great sales success.  Based the success of this product,  the Company was able to expand into the manufacture of other products for the small diversified farm of the Midwestern United States.    However, the company expanded into the manufacture of other products for the small farm.  By 1916, the Company was making chicken waterers and hog oilers

The Kewaunee Company’s popular hog oiler allowed hogs of all sizes to control insect infestions on their skin. The cheap price of the Kewaunee meant that most small farmers could afford an oiler for their farms.

Leonard W. Glidden was the father of Wallace and Raymond  Glidden.  In 1900, Leonard had brought his entire family of three sons and two daughters from Olive, Ohio to Henry County, Illinois where he started a new hardware and farm implement store in the the small town of Galva, Illinois.  Galva was a small town near the City of Kewaunee, Illinois. was Leonard influenced the direction of the In 1930, the name of the company was changed to the Kewaunee Machinery and Conveyor Company.  Raymond worked for a longer time in his father’s store and, thus, became impressed by the future promise of farm machinery.  Accordingly, when he joined his brother, Wallace, and B. F. Baker in forming and operating the Kewaunee Corn Hanger Company, he was already predisposed toward directing the future of the Kewaunee Implement Company toward manufacturing even more farm implements.

Wallace tragically  died in 1921 at the young age of 41 years.  Raymond took up the reins in the place of his older brother.  In 1922 the Kewaunee Implement Company purchased a corporate entity from the Hart Grain Weigher Company of Peoria, Illinois.  This was be a significant move made by the Company which would be important for the future of the Company.  (More on the story of the elevators manufactured by the Kewaunee Implement Company is carried in a later article on this website called “Farming in Illinois with a COOP Model E-3 Tractor (Part III): The Kewanee Machinery and Conveyor  Company.”)

In the post-World War II era, a high school Agricultural Education instructor from Rochelle, Illinois, by the name of Hugh Cooper,  had been working on a new kind of double disc.   In 1950, this new disc was shown to the management of the Kewanee Company.  The disc was a great improvement over most tillage implements of the past.  The double disc was mounted on rubber-tired wheels.  These wheels could be raised or lowered by a hydraulic cylinder with was to be activated by the driver on the tractor seat..  When the wheels were lowered the entire double disc would be raised entirely off the ground and the disc could be transported easily and rapidly on the rubber tires from field to field or even over the public roads.  The Kewaunee Machinery and Conveyor Company purchased the design of this disc and began production of the disc in sizes from 7-foot 11 inches to 13 feet 4 inches in width.

The new Kewanee rubber tired transportable disc was an instant and spectacular success.  The Kewanee disc in this picture  is the eight (8) foot version being pulled by a John Deere Model 60.

This new disc by Kewanee had intrigued our Sterling Township farmer, especially, the possibility of mounting a remote hydraulic cylinder to the Kewanee disc.  He recognized the advantages of the Kewanee disc as a solution to some of the problems he had on his own farm.  Ever since moving onto his farm in Whiteside County, Illinois, our Sterling Township farmer had been following the suggestions of the local Whiteside County Extension agent regarding soil conservation.  As a consequence our Sterling Township farmer had a number of grass covered runways crossing his fields a strategic locations to allow the rain to runoff the fileds with a minimum of soil erosion.  In order for the grass runways to be maintained from season to season, all tillage tools being used in the field needed to be raised every time the tractor and tillage tool crossed the grass waterway.

With a hydraulic system and a remote hydraulic cylinder mounted on the disc, our Sterling Township farmer recognized that if he had a Kewanee disc could be quickly raised while crossing the grass runway and easily and quickly lower the disc again on the other side of the grass runway.

However, when our Sterling Township farmer had purchased his 1951 COOP Model E-3 tractor bearing the serial number #31591, the tractor had not been fitted with the optional hydraulic package installed..  As noted in the earlier article in this series (“Farming with a COOP Model E-3 Tractor in Illinois [Part I]: Farmers Union,” the COOP Model E-3 tractor was really a Cockshutt farm tractor manufactured by the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company in Bradford, Ontario, Canada.

Prior to 1946, the Cockshutt Company had confined itselt largely to the Canadian market.

Before the birth of NFMC, various groups of cooperatives across the United States had signed contracts at various times with the Allis-Chalmers Company of West Allis, Wisconsin , the Oliver Farm Equipment Company of Charles City, Iowa, the Huber Company and finally the Duplex Machinery Company  of Battle Creek, Michigan, to provide tractors which could be sold under the COOP name.  However, the last contractual relationship with Duplex for a tricycle-style row crop tractor–the COOP Model 1– had ended in 1938.  The story of these earlier contracual relationships with tractor companies to aquire tractors to be sold under the COOP name.     Accordingly, the local cooperatives of the United States once again found themselves without a tractor to tractor to sell to their members which bore the name COOP on the hood.

Thus, as early as 1944, NFMC began negotiating with the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company of Brantford, Ontario, Canada to once again resolve this lack of a farm tractor for the COOP line of farm equipment.  After the war ended and the wartime restrictions on the production of civilian farm machinery were lifted both in Canada and the United States a contract was signed between NFMC and Cockshutt which suddenly made the National Farm Machinery Cooperative, NFMC,  the primary United States outlet for the line of Cockshutt farm machinery and the new and very modern Cockshutt Model 30 tractor.  The Model 30 was scheduled to go into production at the Cockshutt Works in Brantford, Ontario.   (Under the terms of this contract NFMC became the predominent retailer of but was not the only retail outlet for Cockshutt tractors in the United States.  A small number of Cockshutt 30 tractors were sold under the “Farmcrest” label by the small Minneapolis, Minnesota headquartered Gambles/Skogmo chain of hardware stores.  As noted in the earlier article cited above also starting in 1947.)

From Cockshutt’s point of view, the deal concluded with the NFMC meant that Cockshutt would be able to break into the United States market with a corporate entity that already had an extensive retail dealership network.  This was the major benefit to the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company would recieve from the deal. 

On the NFMC side of the ledger, the deal with Cockshutt fit the long range goal of the NFMC to become a “full line” farm equipment seller.  As noted in an earlier article on this website–“Farming in Illinois with a COOP Model E-3 Tractor (Part I): The Farmers Union,”–the Farmers Union having greatly expanded their farmer-member’s ability to sell their own grain and corn at the best price available by increasing the network of local cooperative grain elevators in various small towns across the upper Midwest and the Great Plains of the United States, the Farmers Union now sought to build up the “buyer” side of their local cooperatives by increasing the amount of farm implements and supplies that the farmer could buy from their local cooperatives and be able to pay the lowest price for those implements and supplies.   .

Toward this goal, at the end of 1943, in the middle of the Second World War, the NFMC bought the Ohio Cultivator Company of Bellevue, Ohio.  By this purchase, the NFMC immediately broadened its line of farm implements in the Ohio Cultivator Company line.  had wheels which straddled a single row of corn with shovels on both sides of the row and had a seat at the rear which allowed the farmer to ride as he cultivated his corn.  This new cultivator was called the “Fremont cultivator.”  The Fremont cultivator was credited as being the first successfully designed riding cultivator which was successfully marketed.

Harlow Case Stahl, the founder of the Ohio Cultivator Company.

The cultivator was a success from the very beginning.  In the very first year, 87 Fremont cultivators were built and 81 of these were sold to local farmers.  By 1882, sales had risen to 1,000 culivators in one year.  In 1885, Stahl moved his cultivator factor to a larger factory located in Bellevue, Ohio.   At about this the business was incorporated as the  the “Ohio Cultivator Company.”

The sucess of the Ohio Cultivator company with their new riding cultivator led to a nimber of other companies producing similar riding cultivators. Here a pair of horses are pulling a New Century Company cultivator in the corn fields.

During the “good times” of the 1880s Harlow Stahl’s company made sure to pay all its bill to suppliers on time.  Accordingly, they built up a good reputation with the suppliers for dependability.  This reputation set the Ohio Cultivator Company in good stead when in the a period of tightening credit occurred in 1892 and 1893.  The economic condition in the United States grew worse until it became a full blown economic Panic in 1893.  The Panic of 1893 resulted in the bankrupcies of major companies on Wall Street.  Most United States businesses were unable to get loans to carry on manufacturing.  Accordingly, most of these corporations had to lay off workers or cease production altogether.  However, the suppliers of raw materials trusted the Ohio Cultivator Company because of their past record of reliability in paying their bills and the Company was able to continue production of cultivators.  Therefore, when the economy began to recover again in 1895 and 1896 and farmers were ready to start buying machinery again, the Ohio Cultivator Company was well-positioned  with a large inventory of horse-drawn cultivators to sell to them.

An advertisement of a local dealership of the Ohio Cultivator Company. Note at the very bottom of the sign the “Black Hawk” name is prominately seen on the sign.

This gave the Ohio Cultivator Company an advantage over competitors in the farm machinery market.  Harlow Stahl exploited this advantage by expanding his line of farm machinery beyond the horse-drawn cultivator. In 1896 he purcased a factory of a company in Dayton that had been making discs.  In 1899, he purchased the struggling Bellevue Plow Company.  The Ohio Cultivator Company also absorbed the Ohio Hay Press Company in 1900 and the Bissell Plow Company in 1905.  Another agricultural business recession struck the United States economy in 1907-1908.  Nonetheless, through this recession the work force of the Ohio Cultivator Company remained steady at 300 employees.

In 1923, Stahl led his company in making an important acquisition of the D.M. Sechler Implement and Carriage from Moline, Illinois and its Black Hawk line of corn planters and grain drills.  More than the implements of this company it would prove to be the name “Black Hawk” that would prove to be the most enduring asset that would help the Ohio Cultivator Company and after 1943  would the NFMC and later still would help the Cockshutt Company.

An Ohio Cultivator Company advertisement which highlights the “Black Hawk” name at the top of the advertisement.

and would  the  proposed  the   offered a hydraulic kit that could be retrofitted onto the Cockshutt Model 30.  Once again this hydraulic kit was offered for sale in the United States by the network of farmers cooperatives.

A new capability required for use with the new eight-foot trailing- style double Kewaunee disc that he had just purchased from his local dealership in     He knew that the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company offered a remote hydraulic system as an option for all new Model 30 tractors that were manufactured in Bradford, Ontario, Canada.  The various Farmers Union affiliated cooperatives who are selling the Cockshutt Model 30 in the United States under the designation–“Coop” Model E-3, were now offering an “add-on” hydraulic system for E-3 tractors like No. 31591 which had originally been sold without hydraulics.

This add-on hydraulic system was composed of a live-hydraulic pump which was to be mounted to the oil pump at the front of the four-cylinder Buda engine, and the main hydraulic unit located under the operator’s seat.  Through this two-part system, the Cockshutt Farm Equipment Company not only offered a remote hydraulic system which operated through hoses that were connected to the two “Parker-Pioneer” hydraulic connectors protruding from the rear of the main hydraulic unit under the seat of the tractor.  There were two Parker-Pioneer hydraulic connectors were part of the “remote” 2-way hydraulic system.  The remote system powered a hydraulic cylinder on a piece of trailing or pulled-type of farm equipment.but also t only a one of the leading farm equipment companies to he add-on hydraulic kit attempts to provide two hydraulic functions.  First, the main hydraulic unit located under the operator’s seat contains a rock shaft that protruded out either side of the main hydraulic unit.  The Cockshutt hydraulic add-on kit came complete with two lift arms which were attached to a round shaft that was installed on the drawbar under the power take-off shaft on the tractor.  A pair of rock shaft lift arms and two adjustable lift links were included in the kit.  The lift arms were also connected to the ends of the rock shaft.  This provided the power for the three-point hitch.

Two adjustable lift links were connected to the rock shaft lift arms with the lift arms attached to the drawbar.  The rock shaft was powered by hydraulic oil under pressure from the hydraulic pump.  The rock shaft would turn and pull up the lift arms.  These two lift arms formed two points of the three point hitch and were the power of the three-point system.  A top link attached to the rear of the tractor above the power take off shaft formed the third point of the three-point hitch.

However, there were also two “Parker-Pioneer” hydraulic connectors protruding from the rear of the main hydraulic unit under the seat of the tractor.  These Parker-Pioneer hydraulic connectors were part of the “remote” 2-way hydraulic system.  The remote system powered a hydraulic cylinder on a piece of trailing or pulled-type of farm equipment.

This is the system in which our Sterling Township farmer was most interested.  He did not know how he would ever use the three-point hitch, since there were few three-point hitch implements on the market in 1952.  the early 1950as  There  he ufor passing hydraulic oil from the pump on the tractor to a remote hyd nthe gdeveloped by sw   stm

all the parts that on would be needed to attach the Cockshutt three-point hitch to the tractor. .

the cast-iron axle housings located on either side of the tractor are attached to the cast-iron power train housing by six 5/8 inch bolts. The retrofit hydraulic kit sold by the Farmers Union cooperative contained special longer bolts which were to replace four of these original bolts on the top of the axle housing.  These four bolts on each axle housing were used to hold the main hydraulic unit under the operator’s seat.  However, because these bolts were located under the running boards on the operator’s platform, our Sterling Township farmer needed to have the thick sheet metal running boards attached to the side of the power train housing trimmed with a blow torch to allow the main hydraulic unit to be properly attached to the bolts on top of the axle housing.  The main hydraulic unit was fitted with a rock shaft.

these  .

ide of the unit under the seat was attached to the tractor by four of th eight bolts which bolts on the top of the Two hoses connected the pumereservoir and with two hoses which connect front of the engine on the

sunder the under the   purchased in rs like  tch he had aAccordingly,

the s s  Although, Cockshutt This traqctorwas a

Throughout the history of North American agriculture, farENGmers have been attemnship pting to solve their own problems. Farmers have repeatedly joined together in societies and organi

Coop Farming in Illinois (Part I): The Farmers Union

Coop Farming in Illinois (Part 1):

The National Farmers Union

    by

    Brian Wayne Wells

THIS ARTICLE REMAINS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. PERIODICALLY ADDITIONS WILL BE MADE TO THE ARTICLE. WHEN THE ARTICLE IS COMPLETE THIS PARTICULAR MESSAGE WILL DISAPPEAR.

Throughout the history of North American agriculture, farmers have been attempting to solve their own problems. Farmers have repeatedly joined together in societies and organizations to protect their common economic and political well being. In the United States, one of these attempts of farmers to band together to solve their problems occurred in 1867 with the formation of the National Grange of the Society of the Patrons of Husbandry (or more simply “the Grange). The Grange was formed in the state of Maine in 1867. Following the initial founding of the National Grange, local chapters of the Grange Society sprang up all across the northern rural areas of the nation. At first, Grange meetings were merely social events—community dinners and dances. This was an attempt to solve the problem of loneliness or isolation facing many farm families. However, soon the Grange took a more serious bent and began to protest the political and economic problems faced by farmers.

Founding Hall of the National Society of the Grange in Solon, Maine.

Chief among the concerns of the Grangers was the exploitation of farmers by private grain elevators and the railroad. Usually the local privately-owned grain elevators exercised a near monopoly over the prices that local farmers received for their crops. Often times this price was much lower than the farmer might have received if some competition in the market had been available to the local farmer. However, such competition was usually not readily available to the farmers. Usually there was only a single grain elevator in each local town. To find competing elevators the farmer would have to carry his grain to more distant elevators. Shipping their products to more distant markets was one means by which the farmers might find a higher price for their farm products. Railroads, the primary method of shipping to those distant markets, but usually railroads also had a monopoly over shipping from local small towns. Usually there was only one railroad in each small town. Thus, railroads could charge what ever they wanted for shipping the farmer’s grain. So railroads, along with grain elevators became the targets of farm protest movements.

The individual farmer felt himself being squeezed between the twin monopoly powers of the railroads and their local privately-owned grain elevators. Accordingly, the political program of the Grange developed into a strong protest against monopolistic price-setting powers of both the railroads and the privately-owned grain elevators. The State of Illinois, reacting to protest agitation on the part of the Grange, passed legislation on April 25, 1871 which required the appropriate state to regulate the rates that local privately-owned grain elevators charged farmers for their services. Regulations for the storage of grain by privately-owned grain elevators were promulgated in January of 1872. In June of 1872, a group of elevators including the Munn & Scott grain elevator of Chicago, Illinois, were sued by the State of Illinois for a violation of these regulations regarding terms and rates of grain storage charged. Munn & Scott appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court to test the constitutionality of the Illinois statute allowing the regulation of grain elevators. This case became the landmark case called Munn v. Illinois, (94 U. S. 113 [1877]). The Grange joined the State of Illinois, in the case. The case was decided by the United States Supreme Court in 1877. This decision upheld the States of Illinois’ right to regulate the rates that grain elevators could charge for the services they rendered. (More broadly, however, the Munn decision recognized the constitutionality of any state government to regulate any private corporations operating within its boundaries. As such, Munn v. Illinois became the foundation of many areas of law including the state’s right to prevent discrimination against people based on race, sex, age or etc.)

Munn vs. Illinois is argued before the United States Supreme Court.

The Grange was limited in geographical scope to the northern states of the nation. In the south, the National Farmers Alliance was the most popular farm protest group. Formed in 1876 in Lampasas, Texas, the National Farmers Alliance was political from the start. The Alliance agreed with the Grange in demanding restrictions on the monopolistic power of the railroads. However, whereas northern farmers protested against the monopoly power of grain elevators to set prices, southern farmers had the same complaints against the monopoly power of cotton brokers, banks and local merchants under the crop-lien system of farming. Under the crop-lein system, local merchants and bankers would loan money, seed and equipment to farmers before spring planting. Collateral on this loan was a lien on the expected crop to be harvested in the fall. Since cotton was the only crop that paid well enough to support the principal and interest on these loans, the merchants and bankers required that only cotton be planted by the farmer. Thus the farmer’s fortunes rose and fell economically, each year, on a single crop—cotton. Thus, under the crop-lien system, the farmer had no ability to diversify his crops to protect himself economically from the risk of a bad cotton price in a particular year. If cotton crop prices failed, the farmer would still have to make payments on the loan and the interest charges on that loan continued to pile up.

State government regulation of monopoly power provided some protection from certain unscrupulous actions taken against the farmer, however, farmers eventually began think about working together to market their farm products. The idea was that all the farmers of a given community would be a member of the organization, or cooperative. In the north, this meant that the farmers would own their own grain elevator. They would all become shareholders in this elevator. The farmers would meet once a year in a shareholders meeting and elect a board of directors to operate the cooperative elevator. The board of directors, in turn, would hire all the officers needed to handle the day-to-day affairs of the cooperative elevator.

In the 1890s many of these farmer-owned cooperatives sprang up across the Midwestern United States. These farmer-owned cooperatives built new grain elevators or purchased old ones and built or purchased dairy creameries. Thus, in many rural communities of the Midwest there was true competition for the farmers products—corn, wheat and milk. These early cooperatives faced a widespread opposition from railroads, grain companies, banks and many newspapers. Shortly after the turn of the century, two significant farm organizations were organized in support of the cooperative movement.

A cooperatively-owned grain elevator in South Dakota. The farmer cooperative that owns this elevator is affiliated with the Farmers Union. as reflected on the side of the building.

In the south, the Farmers Alliance was broken by the organized and united power of the cotton brokers, the banks and the railroads. Accordingly, in 1902, the National Farmers Union was organized in Point, Texas by Newt Gresham and a number of other farmers. Newt Gresham became one of the main organizers of the Farmer’s Union. Newt Gresham knew how to persevere in the face of adversity. He had been orphaned at the age of 10 years. Thus, at an early age he had become totally self-reliant. He was self-educated, had worked the land for most of his life and became the chief organizer for the Farmers Alliance.

The first organizing meeting of the Farmers Union. Newt Gresham stands second from the right in the back row.

In 1911, another farmers group was formed—the American Farm Bureau Federation was organized in Binghamton, New York. Both of these farm organizations agreed on the benefit of cooperatives to the average farmer. The American Farm Bureau began forming some cooperatives in the 1920s. (Cockshutt: The Complete Story compiled by the International Cockshutt Club, Inc. [American Society of Engineers Press: St. Joseph, Michigan, 1999] p. 78.) These Farm Bureau affiliated cooperatives were located, mainly, in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. Farmers Union cooperatives were mainly located further west (Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Dakotas) and extended south as far as Oklahoma and Texas. However the two organizations developed an entirely different philosophy regarding governmental assistance to farmers in distress. The National Farmers Union supported government assistance and government regulation of the farm markets in time of distress. The America Farm Bureau tended to be opposed to all governmental interference in the farm economy.

One of the early cooperatives formed in the Midwest, was the Equity Cooperative Exchange of St. Paul, Minnesota which had been formed in 1908. In 1914, Equity Cooperative built their own grain elevator on the banks of the Mississippi River in St. Paul. However, Equity had trouble finding buyers for its grain because of the discriminatory actions of private grain companies. For example, Equity was denied a seat in the privately-owned Minneapolis Grain Exchange because of this opposition led by the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce. Accordingly, Equity started their own grain exchange—the St. Paul Grain Exchange in 1914.

Active bidding on parcels of grain on the floor of the Minneapolis Grain Exchange in 1939.

The free-wheeling free enterprise economy of the 1920s worked against the cooperatives. Equity Cooperative was forced into bankruptcy in the 1920s and in 1926, the Farmers Union Terminal Association took over the assets of Equity, in order to continue the goals of the cooperative movement in North America. True to its Farmers Union philosophy the Farmers Union Terminal Association supported stronger regulations on the inspection of grain and governmental regulation of the weighing and calibration of the scales within elevators to assure honest weighing practices.

The severe economic depression of the early 1930s brought renewed vigor to the cooperative movement in the United States. Farmer-owned cooperatives surged in numbers across the Midwestern states. On June 1, 1938, the Farmers Union Terminal Association re-organized itself as the Grain Terminal Association (GTA).

Charles C. Talbot, organizer for the National Farmers Union and President of the North Dakota chapter of the Farmers Union in the 1930s.

Leading organizers of the Farmers Union, like Charles C. Talbot founder and president of the North Dakota Farmers Union; Bill Thatcher, a legislative lobbyist for the Farmers Union in Minnesota; and A.W. Richer, now became involved with GTA.

William (Bill) Thatcher (1883-1977) General Manager of the Grain Terminal Assciation

In the early 1930’s, Myron William (Bill) Thatcher became the general manager of the GTA. Over the 30 years that Bill Thatcher served as general manager of the developed contacts and friendships with politicians, including President Franklin Roosevelt, Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace, Senator Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota and Republican Senator Milton Young of North Dakota. Because of the political philosophy of the Farmers Union which tended to support governmental support of farmers in trouble, most of the political contacts that Bill Thatcher generated on behalf of the Farmers Union/GTA tended to be overwhelmingly members of the Democratic Party. Both in 1932 and 1936, the Farmers Union supported Franklin Roosevelt, while the American Farm Bureau did not. Accordingly, the Farmers Union evolved into a traditional major constituency of the Democratic Party similar to the way the AFL (the American Federation of Labor) and the CIO (the Congress of Industrial Organizations) became major constituent parts of the Democratic Party among urban laboring people.

Hubert Humphrey brings Bill Thatcher to the White House in April 1961 to meet President Kennedy.

Continue reading Coop Farming in Illinois (Part I): The Farmers Union

Oliver Farming in Mower County Minnesota (Part VII): Oliver Row Crop Model 77 Bearing Serial No. 4501745

Oliver Farming in Mower County (Part VIII):

The Row-Crop  Model 77 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 4501745 

  by

Brian Wayne Wells

 

THIS ARTICLE REMAINS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. PERIODICALLY ADDITIONS WILL BE MADE TO THE ARTICLE. WHEN THE ARTICLE IS COMPLETE THIS PARTICULAR MESSAGE WILL DISAPPEAR.

 

Subsequent acquisitions by the New Idea Company included the Horn Company of Fort Dodge, Iowa.   In 1963, the New Idea Company bought the Uni-tractor line from Minneapolis-Moline.   In 1984, the Allied Company bought the New Idea Company. In 1985, the Allied Company purchased the White Tractor Company. In 1988, the White-New Idea Company closed the old Tractor Works located in Charles City, Iowa and moved all White tractor production to the New Idea factory in Coldwater, Ohio.

Austin, Minnesota, (1950 pop. 23,100) is the county seat of Mower County. Austin is located in a Township on the a Located in the middle of Mower County is Windom Township which surrounds the small village of Rose Creek, Minnesota (1930 pop. 210). Until 1980, Rose Creek, Minnesota was famous in the surrounding agricultural community for a farm tractor dealership that was far out of proportion with the town’s small size.

 

Favorable market conditions in the sheep market were reported over the radio—like WCCO radio out of the Twin Cities. Our Nevada Township farmer began think hard about acquiring a small flock of ewes. He was not alone. Many farmers in his neighborhood were doing the same thing. Indeed, for one farm family over in a neighboring township—Austin Township—sheep raising was already a major part of their farm income. Earl Eugene and Margaret (Stormer) Subra owned a farm containing only 60-acres in Austin Township. While, the Subra family milked some cows and raise some pigs, they virtually made all their cash income from sheep—pure bred Suffolk sheep. Born in 1913, Earl Subra grew up on the farm of his parents William J. and Bertha (Dennis) Subra located in Austin Township. Raised on his father’s farm, Earl had moved to his own farm. In 1931, he and Margaret Stormer were married. Earl began raising Suffolk sheep prior to 1940. He chose Suffolk sheep because of the characteristics of breed.

The Suffolk breed was born as a result of the cross breeding of Southdown sheep with old Norfolk sheep in England. Suffolks are not “wool” sheep. They grow only a moderate amount of wool. They were a breed of sheep known for their black faces and legs, which were free of wool. Suffolk sheep were raised primarily as “meat” sheep. Suffolk ewes (female sheep) were prolific in the production of offspring and were “good milkers.” Suffolk lambs grew rapidly; they had more edible meat and less fat than other breeds. Suffolks have excellent feed conversion characteristics which means that Suffolks have the capacity to actively graze and rustle for feed even on dry range lands. However, this characteristic also means that when Suffolk lambs are raised on high quality feeds, the breed has one of the fastest growth rates of any breed of sheep. Consequently, Suffolk sheep were rapidly becoming the most common breed in the Midwestern United States. (Paula Simmons & Carol Ekarius, Storey’s Guide to Raising Sheep [Storey Publishing: North Adams, Massachusetts, 2001] p. 74.)

Earl Subra noted that Suffolks answered the demands of the market at the current time in 1940. Meat, not wool, was the main product that was in demand in the current market. Suffolks had the quality of lean meat that the market demanded. Furthermore, the short five-month (147-153 day) gestation period plus the rapid growth rate of the individual lambs meant that the farmer could make money faster with Suffolks than with other breed of sheep. Earl Subra knew that, drawn by the chance for making a good profit, many farmers would be attempting enter the sheep market by acquiring flocks of their own for the first time. He also knew that many of these farmers would be choosing Suffolks. Accordingly, in addition to raising and selling lambs to the Hormel meat packing plant in Austin, he felt he could also make a profit selling bucks (male sheep) and ewes (female sheep) to those farmers wanting to start their own flocks. In this way he would be working with the rising tide of farmers entering the sheep market. This, Earl Subra thought, was the way he could make a living out of the new situation that was arising.

However, to sell Suffolks to the farmers wishing to start their new flocks, Earl Subra felt that he needed to have a product that would these farmers would buy. If Suffolk sheep had characteristics that would stand out among other breeds of sheep, then the goal should be to raise Suffolk sheep that would adhere closely to those characteristics and avoid any negative characteristics. Indeed, there already was an organization in devoted to promoting the best characteristics of the Suffolk breed by educating Suffolk breeders. This organization was the National Suffolk Sheep Association (N.S.S.A.) which was headquartered in Michigan and later was headquartered in Columbia, Missouri. N.S.S.A. started a registration process by which purebred Suffolks could be registered with N.S.S.A. N.S.S.A. would mail out a certificate of registration to the owner of the individual registered sheep. In order to qualify for registration, both the sire (father) and dam (mother) must also have their own certificates of registration. Theoretically, then every registered purebred Suffolk could be traced back through a paper trail of registration certificates to the original Suffolk sheep which initially defined the breed. Each certificate of registration would document that the individual sheep was direct descendant of these original Suffolk sheep.

Even prior to 1939, Earl Subra had been working on developing a flock of Suffolk sheep that reflected superiority in any number of individual features. Soon his ewes and rams were winning a number of blue ribbons at the Mower County Fair which was held in the first week of August each year. Earl also began to make a name for himself at the Minnesota State Fair. Soon breeders from outside the Midwest, and even from Canada, were searching him out to purchase rams and ewes from the Subra flock. These other breeders saw traits in the Subra sheep that they wished to include in the blood lines of their own flocks. Consequently, Subra sheep were sold far and wide and Earl Subra became quite famous among Suffolk breeders across the nation.

Accordingly, when our Nevada Township farmer began to think seriously about obtaining a flock of sheep for his own farm, he though of the Subra farm located in the next township to the west. Accordingly, in the fall of 1941, after watching the dramatic increase in the price of sheep over the summer (reaching $7.10 per hundred weight in August of 1941), our Nevada Township farmer purchased eight (8) purebred Suffolk ewes from Earl Subra in September of 1941 and brought them to his farm. He hoped that adding sheep to his farming operation would be another diversification of the farming operation and the farm income. He hoped this diversification would further strengthen his family’s financial position.

Introducing the ewes to his farm for the first time required that some changes be made to the farm. The farm on which our Nevada Township farmer and his family lived was established in a series of concentric circles, each area fenced off from the next larger circle. The immediate area around the house contained the lawns, the outhouse, dog house and family garden. This was the inner yard. A legal term for this area is “the curtilage.”   The next largest encircled area included most of the rest of the building site of the farm, the grove, the orchard and the windbreak running along the north and west sides of the building site. This area was also called the “yard,” but the term was meant to be used in a larger sense than the mere curtilage around the house. The area behind the barn was fenced off from the yard to keep the cows out of the yard. Likewise the areas on either side of the hog house were fenced off to keep the pigs out of the yard and the chicken yard next to the hen house was fenced off to keep the chickens out of the yard. All animals were kept out of the yard except the family dog and any cats from the barn. These animals were actually encouraged to patrol the yard and keep rodents under control. However, the yard was intended to be the main home for the small flock of sheep that he was now acquiring.

One of the benefits of a flock of sheep would be the fact that they would keep the grass and weeds in all area of the yard under control. This would save labor and time that the family had, in the past, spent trying to keep these areas mowed and trimmed. This was one of the advantages that our Nevada Township farmer looked forward to about having sheep on the farm. However, there were also disadvantages. One of the most important disadvantages was that all the fences around the yard had to be improved and reinforced. Sheep were curious and would explore every portion of the area they occupy in order to find vegetation to eat. First, the fence between the yard and the cartilage needed to be made more secure to keep the sheep from invading the cartilage and most importantly out of the family garden. In the garden, the sheep could make quick work of the young succulent plants the family was trying to grow there. The lawns inside the cartilage would continue to be mowed by the family, just as in the past. Likewise the fences around the outside of the yard needed to be strengthened to prevent the sheep from getting into the fields where the farm crops were being raised.

In 1945, the number of sheep across the whole state of Minnesota stood at 995,000 head. In Mower County the sheep population was 17,500 head in 1945. The number of sheep in neighboring Fillmore County, to the east of Mower County, stood at 30,500 head.

The sale lambs to the Hormel’s, the sale y

 

This s   During the the esheltolocation to la Farm withwhich had been the foread merged with r headed southw dd On the one hand, being just e Minnesota that sm wee.n a on o t

October Sr. John and (A short profile of Robert Thill and a short history of Thill Implement is contained in the       issue of Oliver Collector magazine

 

Until the dealership closed its doors in 1965, Thill Implement served as the a local Oliver Farm Equipment dealership. However, over the years they were in business, Thill Implement grew in reputation and fame until they served much more than just Windom Township and the immediate Rose Creek community. The dealership eventually became the premier Oliver dealership of all Mower County and, began to serve the entire southern Minnesota and northern Iowa area.

The Second World War had had a large impact on the population of the United States. In 1940, still 43.5% of the population of the nation lived on farms. In 1950, this figure had dropped to 36.9% of the total population. (See the U.S. Census on-line.) Still with more than one third of the nation making their money from farms, the United States remained a “rural nation.” Thus, many of the returning United States veterans from both theaters of the war were from farms and upon their return to home. When they did return they had many new ideas on how to modernize the family farm. First and foremost, in the improvements sought by returning veterans, was to replace slow, inefficient horse power on the family farm with mechanical power supplied by a farm tractor. Thus, a large demand for tractors was created at the end of the war. Furthermore, this demand for tractors was made worse by the fact that no new tractors had been available during the whole course of the war. Accordingly, even the farmers that might have bought a new farm tractor during the war were prevented from doing so by the wartime restrictions on the economy which curtailed civilian tractor production. With the return of peace, these wartime restrictions on the economy were suddenly ended. There was a tremendous surge of buyers released into the new farm machinery market. This surge of buyers caused new local dealerships to spring up all over the Midwestern United States.

One of these new implement dealerships, was the Thill Implement dealership in Rose Creek, in Mower County, Minnesota. John Thill started this dealership in   . John Thill remained a farmer in Windom Township. In     , with his brother Jack. Thill Implement had a dealership franchise agreement with the Oliver Farm Equipment Company of Charles City, Iowa, to sell the full line of Oliver farm equipment from the. Since 1937, the line Oliver of tractors had been distinguished by the six-cylinder Model 70 tractor. The Model 70 was the most popular selling tractor in the line of Oliver had a sales reputation that stretched far beyond the rural Rose Creek community. The dealership became an important regionally severing a multi-county area in southern Minnesota and Northern Iowa. The dealership With the return of peace following the Second World War, the In the post-war was uniques line, were In the pos

dealership grown into a .   Rober achad not yet reached its full capacity . The dealership had been was

thaof the the South Bend, Indiana is famously known as the home of Notre Dame University. However, the economic basis for the small Indiana city is build on the processing of iron and the manufacture of farm machinery. Two particular examples of the farm equipment manufacturing basis of the South Bend economy are the two factories owned by the Oliver Farm Equipment Corporation—South Bend No. 1, located on the large industrial lot at the corner of Chapin and Sample streets and extending to Indiana Street, and South Bend No. 2 located at Walnut Street.   South Bend No. 1 is the Oliver Chilled Plow factory and contains a foundry. While South Bend No. 2 is the “Tractor Works” is basically a large machining works where the various castings molded in South Bend No. 1 are drilled with the necessary bolt holes and and where edges on those castings are shaved down under huge milling machines to the proper tolerances to be fit together with other castings during the assembly of Oliver tractors and engines. (Scenes of the operations inside both South Bend No. 1 and South Bend No. 2 can be seen on the movie Acres of Power [1948]. This movie is available on VHS video tape from the Floyd County Historical Society.)

On Friday morning , December 11, 1953, the work force at the South Bend No. 1 foundry works of the Oliver Farm Equipment Company changed some numbers on the mold for the transmission and rear-end housing for Oliver’s most popular tractor—the Row Crop Model 77 tractor. Each casting l the casting rought the date on the mould of their castings up to date. All transmission and rear end housing that would be cast today would bear the current date—December 11, 1953.   a particular casting for the transmission and rear end housing was cast. As usual, all the molds used for casting this e on this the mold was All the cast iron used in the assembly of the famous Oliver tractor are “cast” right here in South Bend No. 1. that fit together and form Oliver tractors are made in bMost famously milled. ade in the uplants s the basic xiand town s The The 100° longitude meridian line runs north and south over the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. This longitude line is

 

 

In December of 1968, Robert and Lorraine Westfall and their family of eight children moved from the Jimmy Olson farm, located northwest of Dexter, Minnesota (1960 pop. 313), to their own farm which they purchased in December of 1968. This farm was located in the same neighborhood and was situated east of the village of Dexter. east of thev of rural which they had been renting since 1959 to their own farm which th. No. 4501745 was again sold through Thill Implement in the December of 1968 to Robert Westfall of Dexter, Minnesota. Robert and Lorraine Westfall used No. 4501745 on their farm until Robert passed away on January 13, 1992. Lorraine continued to live on the farm and rent out the acerage until she sold the farm in October of 1996. In 1996 she sold No. 4501745 to Mark Wells. In August of 1996, David Preuhs pickup and trailer from LeSueur, Minnesota to the Westfall farm in near Dexter, Minnesota to pickup the Oliver tractor and bring it back to LeSueur Pioneer Power. Kyle Lieske worked on the Oliver over the winter of 2008-2009 and the tractor was brought to West Virginia by Sally and Brian Wells where the tracor was painted during June of 2009 by Jake Lovejoy of Red House, West Virginia.     and r f from tr Defrom   drove his trailer and and she sold the Olver Row Crop to Mark Wells.   Wesvat this The Oliver continued to be used on the farm for u r Retired from farming in tithe Model and Fa;;l V s ;V. The the

 

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