Category Archives: Manure Loaders

The 1955 Model 300 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 22368.

The 1955 Farmall Model 300 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 22368.    

by

Brian Wayne Wells

      This article remains under construction.  Periodically, new blocks of text will appear in the article and/or  current blocks of text will be corrected.

 

The tricycle-style Farmall Model 300 tractor.  This tractor has the optional three hydraulic levers which are attached to the hood of the tractor behind the steering wheel on the operator’s platform.  From this angle the levers can be seen in this picture, just  just behind the headlight.  Two of these levers will control the hydraulic oil flow through the two hydraulic hoses, which are seen in this picture in front of the belt pulley.  These two hoses will led to hydraulic connectors on the rear of the tractor to be used for remote hydraulic cylinders on any farm equipmdnt that might be towed by the tractor.  The  third lever is probably for the fast hitch on the tractor.

 

The Farmall 300 bearing the serial number 22368 with the mounted McCormick-Deering Model 33A power loader was for sale during the 2018 Swap Meet on the grounds of the LeSueur County Pioneer Power Association.

 

Introduction of the  “letter-series” tractors actually began on June 21, 1939 with the full scale production of the Farmall Model A tractor at the company’s “Tractor Works” factory located at 24th Street and Western Avenue in Chicago, Illinois.  During the last half of 1939, the Tractor Works would turn out 6,243 Farmall Model A tractors and the next year–1940 (the first full year of production)–the Chicago  factory would manufacture 34,756 Farmall Model A tractors.

An advertisement of the introduction of the “letter-series” tractors in 1939. In July of 1939 only the Farmall Models M, H, and A were introduced. In December 1939 a fourth model–the Model B was introduced. ,

 However, the real action in Farmall tractor production was occurring across the State of Illinois on the Mississippi River at Rock, Island, Illinois.  In Rock Island, at the company’s “Farmall Works” facility the larger Farmall tractors which held the future of the company, were being produced.  The three-plow Farmall M, which was the largest of the row-crop tractors of all the letter series tractors, began production on July 15, 1939 at the huge “Farmall Works” factory.  The Farmall Model H tractor began production on its own assembly line within the Farmall Works.

The Farmall H assembly line at the Farmall Works factory in uRock Island, Illinois was always busy turning out the most popular of all Farmall letter series tractors–the Model H.

As noted in other articles at this website, when the two-plow Farmall H began production on July 21, 1939, the Model H quickly became the leading seller in the Farmall line of tractors,  immediately out-selling the  larger Farmall M.  (In 1939, 10,152 Farmall Model H’s were made and sold as opposed to only 6,739 Farmall M’s)  There were at multiple assembly lines in the large Farmall Works facility.  One of the assembly lines in the Farmall Works was dedicated to production of the Farmall H, while production of the Farmall M was performed on another assembly line in another part of the factory.

An aerial view of the Farmall Works factory in Rock Island, Illinois

Observers had long expected that the larger and more powerful three-plow tractor of the letter series, the Farmall Model M would outsell the two-bottom Model H.    However, from the very start of the production run of the letter series in the summer of 1939, the Farmall Model H proved to be the most popular selling tractor of the series.  With the exception of the single year of 1947, this would remain the situation until 1949.  

The Farmall Model H was the most popular selling tractor of the series.

During the years that followed the introduction of the letter-series tractors, production of the Farmall H continued to outstrip production of the Farmall M in the years that followed.  (41,734 Farmall H’s were made in the modelyear 1940 and 40,850 were made in 1941.  During the same years, production of the larger Farmall M was limited to only 18,131 in 1940 and 25,617 in 1941.)  These were the glory years of tractor production for the Farmall Model H.

However, with the coming of the Second World War, the United States government began to restrict the use of raw materials and manufacturing capacity for anything but the war effort.  Civilian manufacturing was greatly curtailed during the war years.  Accordingly, in model year 1942,  production of the Farmall Model H at International Harvesters‘ Farmall Works in Rock Island, Illinois fell to 29,353.  In 1943, production of the Model H fell to 27,661 tractors.  In 1944, production rose again to 35,872, but still did not reach the pre-war production figures. Production in 1945 was  28,697 Farmall H’s.  Even with the end of the war, the number of Farmall Model H’s rolling off the Model H assembly line at the huge Rock Island Farmall Works facility in 1946, still was limited to 26,343 Farmall H’s.   (During these same immediate post-war years, production of the Farmall M lagged behind at 9,025 tractors in 1942; 7,413 Farmall Model M’s in 1943;  and 20,661 Model M’s in 1944; 17,479 in 1945; 17,259 in 1946 and 28,885 in 1947.)

Public appreciatioin of the benefits of the more powerful Farmall Model M would not make the Farmall M the best selling tractor in the Farmall line until 1949.

However, as the demand for bigger and more efficient farm equipment grew in the post-war years, farmers turned to buying larger farm tractors like the Farmall Model M.  As a result the sales gap between the Model H and the Model M sales narrowed and in 1947 sales of the Farmall M reached 28,885 tractors and actually surpassed sales of the Farmall H  (27,848 Farmall H’s in 1947)  for the first time.  After falling behind the Model H in sales for the year 1948, (31,885 Farmall Model H’s as opposed to 28,806 Model M’s were manufactured in 1948), the Model M once again took the lead in the sales and production again in 1949 with 33,065 Farmall M’s rolling  off  the Model M assembly line while only 27,099 Farmall H’s rolled off the Model H assembly line at the Farmall Works facility in Rock Island, Illinois.  This time the Model M would continue to lead the Farmall H in production figures for the remainder  of the production run of the letter-series tractors.  (In 1950, production of the Model M reached 33,939 tractors.  In 1951, a record, 43,405 Farmall M tractors were made and sold.

In 1952, the International Harvester Company replaced the Farmall Model M with the new Farmall Super M.  Early in the production year of 1952 the Farmall Works factory in Rock Island, Illinois made 7,295 Farmall M tractors before the factory was closed down for retooling and preparation for the production of the Super M.  International Harvester actually built 12,015 Super M’s at the Farmall Works in Rock Island, Illinois in the latter part of the 1952 production year.  (An additional 1,905 Super M’s built at the newly constructed factory located in Louisville, Kentucky.)

Meanwhile, on the Farmall H assembly line at the same Rock Island factory, 23,948 Farmall Model H’s rolled off the Model H assembly line in 1950; 23,938 followed in 1951 and an identical number of 23,938 were made in 1952.  Accordingly, after the first three years of production of the Farmall H–1939-1941, production of the Farmall Model H became much more consistent during  the 11 years from 1942 through 1952.  During these 11 years the average yearly production of Farmall Model H’s was 27,871 Model H’s per year, or 2,323 every month during this period of time. If we assume that the average month consists of 20 working days excluding weekends and holidays the daily production of Farmall H’s during this period was 116 tractors each work day.

Additionally, 727 Farmall H’s were made in 1953 bringing the total number of Farmall H’s manufactured during the entire production run from 1939 through 1953 to 391,227 individual tractors.  Of course, in 1953, the International Harvester Company replaced the Farmall Model H with a the Farmall Model Super H.  So after making the 727 Farmall H’s in the early part of the production year of 1953– the Farmall Works facility closed down for a retooling of the H assembly line.  Following the retooling of the H assembly line, the Farmall Works produced 21,707 individual Super H tractors in the latter part of 1953.

Adding the 1953 production of Farmall H’s with the 1953 production of Super H’s together,results in the combined production figure of  22,434 individual tractors that came off the Farmall H assembly line at the Rock Island Farmall Works in 1953.  This combined production figure for 1953 was only 5,437 less that the average yearly production of the Farmall H assembly line in the Farmall Works facility.   The loss of production time in 1953 from the average production year appears to be the equivalent of two-months and seven working days.  This was probably the amount of time that was needed for a skeleton crew of workers to retool the Farmall H assembly line at the Farmall Works to begin full production of the Super H.

Introduction of the Farmall Super H occurred at the Minnesota State Fair in late August of 1952 which was the actual beginning of the 1953 “model year.”

This article has been referring to the term “production year.” If the “production year” coincided with the calendar year, it would logical to assume that the 1953 production of 727 Farmall H’s occurred over the first six days in January, 1953.  However, it is more likely that the 1953 production figures are not for the “calendar year” of 1953, but rather are for the “production or model year” of 1953.  Tractors did not change styling on an annual basis the way that automobiles were starting to do annually in the post-World War period, but tractors were starting follow a “model year” system like automobiles rather than following a traditional  calendar year system.  Under the model year system,new model automobiles were introduced in September of the previous year rather than on January 1st of the current year.  However, the model year in tractors would need to begin in August of each year, especially for model years that involved substantive changes in the model of tractor.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.the model year in tractors would need to begin in August of each year, especially for model years that involved substantive changes in the model of tractor.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.the model year in tractors would need to begin in August of each year, especially for model years that involved substantive changes in the model of tractor.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.  The reason was that State Fairs around the nation offered the best opportunity for tractor manufacturers to advertise their new tractors to the nation’s farming public.  State Fairs created a great deal of excitement and were an advertising opportunity that tractor manufacturers simply could not afford to miss.  Especially favored by tractor manufacturers was the nation’s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.s largest agricultural fair–the Minnesota State Fair–which  was held over the last ten (10) days before Labor Day each year.

Accordingly, we might conclude that full production run of the Farmall Super H was begun in early August of 1952 to have sufficient time to get examples of the new Super H off the production line and shipped to the Minneapolis/St. Paul Minnesota “block house” (the International Harvester Company-owned distribution warehouse located at 2572 University Avenue in the midtown area between the two cities.  Ordinarily, the staff at the block house would be hurriedly re-shipping the tractors they received from the Farmall Works to the various dealerships around Minnesota who they served.  However, in this case the block house staff would be instructed to not ship any Super Hs out to their dealership until after the official introduction of the Super H at the large International Harvester tent on the State Fairgrounds on the first day of the State Fair.

Television in the early 1950 helped create even more excitement around the Minnesota State Fair.  Tractor Manufacturers could not pass up the advertising possibilities to reach the farming public available at the Minnesota State Fair.  Here KSTP Channel 9 television out of Minneapolis at the State Fair adds to the excitement and advertising possibilities of the State fair in the 1950s.

KMSP Channel 9 television out of Minneapolis at the State Fair in the 1950s.

It was well advertised that the Model Super H had more horse power (hp.) than the regular Farmall Model H.  (Testing in Nebraska had shown the new Super H to turn out 30.68 hp. at the drawbar and 33.40 hp. at the belt pulley.  While the regular Model H had created only 24.17 hp. at the drawbar and 26.40 at the belt pulley.)  However, one small difference that probably went unnoticed at the State Fair, was the fact that the wheel base of the Super H was about an inch longer that the regular H.  (89.25 inches for the Super H and 88.325 inches for the regular H)  a single inch added to the wheel base would hardly be noticeable to anyone.  This was a sign that the addition of live hydaulics as an option to the Super H had made space along the top of the power train and inside the transmission case extremely limited.  The H needed to be totally redesigned in the near future.  Thus, it was no surprise that for the model year 1955,International Harvester Company replaced the Farmall Super H in their line of farm tractors with the Farmall Model 300 tractor. 

 Once again the “model year” of 1955 actually began in 1954.   A book written by Guy Fay and Andy Kraushaar called Original Farmall Hundred Series 1954-1958 reveals that  IHC records show that production of the Farmall 300 began in November of 1954.  During November and December of 1954 the records in the Fay and Kraushaar book have 1,182 Model 300 tractors built in November and 1,677 Model 300 tractors built in December of 1954.  Like the Model Super H, production of the Farmall 300 was also short lived. Clearly, in this case, no Model 300 tractors were available for the 1954 Minnesota State Fair.  The introduction of the Farmall Model 300 to the Minnesota State Fair had to wait until August of 1955.

(Coincidentally, the current author attended this fair as a six year old child.  along with his parents, the late Wayne A. Wells, Marilyn (Hanks) Wells, four year old brother, Mark Wells, and and three-year old sister, Eileen Wells.  Also attending was the current author’s Uncle John Hanks and his Aunt Hildreth Hanks and the family’s good friend Rhona Fitzpatrick.  A good time was had by all!! For the current author and his siblings it was a marvelous adventure.  brother The family slept out in a series of camping tents in the campground at the State Fair.  One of the first exhibits the family saw was the early show at the International Harvester tent.  It was quite a show as the Fast-Hitch 300 tractor was shown hitching and unhitching rapidly to the music of a square dance.  Later years at the big International Harvester tent would have the would have Farmall tractors driven through their famous square dance without the Fast Hitch implements, but 1955 was different.  The Fast Hitch on the 300 had to be demonstrated for the farming public in attendance.  The visit to the State Fair was repeated again in 1956 and threatened to become an annual event.  However, in 1957, Uncle John went into the United States Army and the current author’s immediate family rode a passenger train to Elyria, Ohio to see Aunt Hildreth and pick up a new 1957 Plymouth station wagon.  In 1958 the family took the new car on an extensive trip to Seattle , Washington, and back.   The family would not see the State Fair again until 1959.  By this time the Farmall tractors had changed appearance dramatically and the big top tent at the International Harvester exhibit now featured International Model 340 crawlers doing the famous square dance.) 

While the production run of the Model 300 continued for the entire twelve months of 1955 and continued into 1956, production of the 300 ceased in August of 1956.  As a result, the production run of the successor to the Farmall 300 (the Farmall Model 350) did not—according to Fay and Kraushaar’s beautiful book–begin until the November of 1956. 

The model year of 1955, saw the introduction of the whole line of the “Hundred Series” tractors by the  International Harvester Company.  The Hundred Series line of tractors included the larger Model 400 and the smaller Model 200 and Model 100 tractor in addition to the Model 300.  

The production figures of the Farmall Super H and the Farmall 300 are confusing because both Super H and the 300 were produced for only one entire model year each–1952 and 1954, respectively.  Every year has 250 working days excluding Saturday and Sunday of each of 52 weeks in the year.  By using the serial numbers index we can determine how many tractors can be built in a single day at the Rock Island Tractor Works.  Whether the tractor was the Farmall H or the Farmall Super H or the Farmall 300,  the average daily production figure was 85 tractors per day.  As noted above, instead of the January to January, calendar year we must consider the model year which for reasons stated above, must be considered rather than the calendar year.  Instead, of January 1, we look at the August 1 as the beginning of the new model year.  Following this procedure we can determine that the 1955 model year of the Farmall 300 began on August 1, 1954.  and ended on August 1, 1955.  At the rate of production of 85 tractors built per day, the production of the Farmall 300 bearing the Serial No. 22368 occurred on the Monday, July 18, 1955.  Just 10 days prior to the start of the new model year of August, 1955-August, 1956.

When the new Farmall 300 was made available to the public, there were a number of options that were available for the 300.  These options had not been available on predecessors of the 300, i.e. the Farmall Super H or the Farmall H.   First, one of the most common options available on the Farmall 300 was the newly developed “Torque Amplifier” or “T.A.”   After being available in 1954 on the Farmall Super MTA tractor during the short production run of the Super MTA in 1954, the T.A. option was made available on “Hundred Series” tractors, e.g. the Model 400 and Model 300 etc., when the Hundred Series was introduced in the 1955 model year.

An advertisement of the Torque Amplifier or T.A. that was available for the tractors of the new Hundred Series.

 

The 1955 Farmall Model 300  bearing the Serial No. 22368 was first purchased by a farm family from Carver County and probably purchased from an International Harvester dealership in the county seat of Chaska  .  The tractor seems to have been equipped at the factory with every single piece of optional equipment that had been made available for the Model 300.  Besides the Torque Amplifier option which is described above,  No. 22368 is fitted with the optional three hydraulic valve levers located on the right side of the dash board on the operator’s platform.

The Farmall Model 300 bearing the serial number 22368 is fitted with the optional set of three levers, rather than a mere two levers or even a single lever, on the right side of the dash board of the Farmall 300 tractor.

The optional set of three levers means that the particular tractor is equipped with three independent and “live” hydraulic valves on the tractor.   Each lever controls the hydraulic oil valve that regulates the flow of oil pumped down a hose to any  cylinder located on the tractor or located “remotely” on an implement being towed by the tractor.  The hydraulics on the Hundred Series Farmalls are independent “live hydraulics.”  This means that the hydaulics will operate even when the foot clutch on tractor is depressed or disengaged.  

By the time that No. 22368 was purchased in the spring of 2018 by Wells Family Tractors, a Model 33A McCormick-Deering hydraulic loader had been mounted on the tractor.  Accordingly, the lever nearest the dash board controlled the valve that directed hydraulic oil down the hoses to the cylinders located on the arms of the loader which would allow the loader to raise the bucket which was attached to the arms at the front of the tractor.

In addition to being independent hydraulic cylinders on either side of the Model 33A loader controlled by the inside lever of the three hydraulic control levers on the right side of the dash board on the operator’s platform.  The hydraulic cylinders were also “two-way” cylinders.  This means that the cylinders on the arms of the loader can apply pressure and power in both directions–when contracting as well as when extending.  Lifting the loader is effected by pulling back on the “inside” hydraulic control lever nearest the dashboard.  When the same lever is pushed forward the cylinders on the loader can be contracted under power so that the bucket is pressed against the ground and the front wheels of the tractor can be lifted off the ground. 

As noted above, the outside hydraulic lever–furthest from the dashboard–to raise and lowers the Fast-Hitch drawbar.  The cylinder controlling the Fast Hitch drawbar is also a two-way hydraulic cylinder.  Thus, if a person places a couple of large cement blocks under the the drawbar and then lowers the drawbar under power, the rear wheels can be raised off the ground.  Furthermore, because the three hydraulic valves are all independent of each other the operator of the tractor could lift the front wheels of the tractor off the ground by manipulating the lever course nearest the dashboard and at same time lift the rear wheels of the tractor off the ground by manipulating the outside hydraulic lever–furthest from the dashboard–to lower the Fast Hitch drawbar onto the cement blocks. 

Of course, the middle lever of the three-lever set, on No. 22368, controls yet another hydraulic valve that can also act independently and can apply power in a two-way manner.  However, more discussion of the use made of the middle hydraulic lever of the three-lever set on No. 22368 can be found below.   

A rear end view of No. 22368 shows the optional Fast-Hitch drawbar on the tractor.

Yet another option which was factory-installed on No. 22368 is the optional power steering.  The operator of No. 22368 becomes aware of the fact that the International Company installed power steering on the tractor before the operator has even started the engine.  Right in front of the operator at middle of the on the steering wheel is a little light weight aluminum disc bearing the woords “Power Steering.” 

The light-weight aluminum disc at the center of the steering wheel advertises the fact that o. 22368 is fitted with the optional factory-installed power steering. The undamaged condition after 63 years indicates the tractor’s very light use during those 63 years.

A new aluminum power steering insignia which mounts on the center of the steering wheel of tractors of the hundred-series.

Because this power steering insignia was made of light weight aluminum and was mounted on the steering wheel, the aluminum insignia stood the risk of easily becoming damaged even under ordinary tractor use.

Additionally, the cylinders on the Model 33A loader mounted on No. 22368 are “two-way” hydraulic cylinders.  This means that the cylinder can apply pressure and power in both directions–when contracting as well as when extending.  This means that the cylinders on the loader can be contracted under power so that the bucket is pressed against the ground and the front wheels of the tractor can be lifted off the ground.  The other two hydraulic valve levers of the optional three-lever set on No. 22368 can be connected to hoses leading to other hydraulic cylinders.  (Indeed later in this same article discussion will had of connections made to the middle hydraulic lever.)

However, the third lever of the set of three (the outside lever located the furthest from the dash board of the tractor)  is connected to the optional Fast Hitch drawbar of No, 22368.  The optional Fast Hitch drawbar on the Hundred Series tractors is usually painted white and can be raised and lowered by hydraulics controlled by the third (outside) valve lever.  This leaves the middle (or second) lever of the three hydraulic levers on No.  

Continue reading The 1955 Model 300 Tractor Bearing the Serial No. 22368.

The Horn Manufacturing Company of Fort Dodge Iowa

The Horn Manufacturing Company of Fort Dodge Iowa

by

Brian Wayne Wells

as published in an issue of

Hart-Parr/Oliver Collectors Magazine

The Horn Manufacturing Company of Fort Dodge, Iowa.

The winter of 1994 issue of the Hart-Parr/Oliver Collectors Magazine carried an excellent article by Bob Tallman on the various “short line” distributors or manufacturers of farm equipment which the Oliver Corporation used to fill out their line of equipment available at local Oliver dealerships.  (Bob Tallman, “Allied Equipment,” Hart-Parr/Oliver Collectors Magazine, Volume 5, No. 3, [Winter 1994] p. 9.)  One of the short line companies mentioned in that article was the Horn Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of the famous Horn-draulic loader.  The Horn Company story is one that needs elaboration.

A Horn Manufacturing Company loader mounted on a Farmall Model F-20 tractor.

 

Paul Horn had immigrated from Germany in 1902 and worked at the Fort Dodge Planing Mill until 1904 when he married.  After living in Minneapolis, Minnesota for three years, the couple returned to Fort Dodge in 1908 and built the house that later became known as the “Horn Home”–a local landmark located at Sixth Avenue South and Twelfth Street.  The couple had six children.  In 1909, Paul Horn founded the Paul Horn Cabinet Works.  The Paul Horn Cabinet Works flourished and later became incorporated as the Horn Manufacturing Company.  In 1922, Paul Horn invented the “Horn Folding Partitions” for use in schools and other public buildings.  These partitions were a handy way of temporarily dividing large gymnasiums for practice sessions and physical education courses in schools across the nation.  In 1938, Horn also invented “Horn Folding Bleachers” for use in school gymnasiums.

The Horn Manufacturing Company expanded its line of products to include folding gymnasium bleachers and folding room partitions.

 

The Horn Company manufactured their products in two Quonset buildings that they built on a 23-acre site west of Fort Dodge, Iowa.  This triangular-shaped piece of property had originally been owned by Martin Fireworks Company.  Safe storage of fireworks required dispersion of the fireworks into several small storage facilities.  Consequently, when the Horn Company bought the property they found many small buildings scattered around the site.

An aerial view of the Horn Manufacturing Company 23-acre factory site located in Fort Dodge, Iowa.

 

During the Second World War, the Horn Company was commissioned to make large airplane hanger doors for military installations around the United States.  Indeed, for the duration of the war, these doors were the only product that the Horn Company could make.  Use of steel was regulated by the United States Government and could only be purchased for use in products directly related to the war effort.

The Chicago Great Western Railway served Fort Dodge, Iowa and, thus, was the Horn Manufacturing Company’s connection with their customers across the Midwest.

 

 

Although the 23-acre Horn Company site was served by a spur from the Great Western Railroad line which ran along the east side of property, during this time the Company found that it was much more efficient to have their own trucks deliver the doors to their locations rather than rely on the railroads.  Therefore, twenty IHC K-8 trucks were purchased along with thirty Freuhauf flatbed trailers for transporting the big hanger doors to military airfields as far away as Alaska.  At the peak of production, the Company was making a set of doors each day.  The trucks would return from a trip, be unhooked from the empty flatbed, attached to a loaded flatbed and ready to go again within hours.

In 1943, Paul Horn retired and left management of the Company to his four sons–Herbert (born in 1906), Frederic (born in 1909), Walter (born in 1912) and Robert (born in 1914).  Herbert became president of the Company.

Amid the celebration of the end of the war in 1945, there was the harsh realization for the Horn Company that soon there would be no more contracts for hanger doors from the government.  Indeed, one Friday in late 1945, after V-J Day on September 2, a telephone call from Washington, D.C. informed them that no more purchases of hanger doors would be forthcoming.  It was a pretty gloomy day for the management and employees of the Horn Company.  Production of the only product for which the Company had been tooled for the last three-and-a-half years was to end as soon as all current contracts were filled.  Furthermore, the return to production of gymnasium partitions and bleacher seats was not a promising prospect given the fact that the economy immediately following the war showed little hope that a great number of new schools were going to be built in the near future.  Many companies were unable to re-tool and find a niche in the peacetime market and went out of business.  This same prospect was a very real possibility for the Horn Company in the late fall of 1945.  Frederic Horn, who now lives in San Marcos, California, remembers that following this gloomy Friday he had a chance to be uptown in Fort Dodge.  He stopped in at a familiar meeting place for the citizens of Fort Dodge at that time–the local Sears and Roebuck Company outlet store.  Reflecting on the problems facing the Horn Company, he asked the manager of the Sears store, in an off-handed way, whether there were any products which the Horn Company could make for Sears.  The manager replied that there was a terrific demand for wagon boxes.  This started the Horn brothers thinking about a new product for their company.

An advertisement of the farm products that were being manufactured by the Horn Manufacturing Company including the new flare-style wagon box.

 

During the pre-war period, grain boxes for wagons had changed from the very narrow straight-sided “triple box” design to the “flare box” in which the top part of the wagon box flared outward at an angle over the wheels of the running gear.  The flare box offered greatly increased volume inside the box while retaining a low center of gravity.  However, the boxes continued to be made exclusively of wood and continued to be painted green no matter who the manufacturer happened to be.

The discussion undertaken by the Horn brothers about the production of wagon boxes soon centered around whether an all-steel flare-type grain box would sell in the domestic farm market which had been accustomed to only wooden boxes.  Frederic and his brother Robert, who now lives in Florida, were in favor of building a prototype and testing the waters of the domestic farm market.  Their brother Herbert was opposed, but soon changed his mind and prototypes of the proposed 105-bushel all-steel flare-type wagon box were built.

In anticipation of the entry of the Company into production of farm equipment, the Company was divided down the middle.  The two new companies were the Horn Brothers Company, which continued with the production of gymnasium dividers, folding bleachers and hanger doors, and the Horn Manufacturing Company, which was to make the new all-steel flare-type wagon box.  Additionally, the 23-acre site was also divided right down the middle.  The western part, where the two Quonset buildings were located, was to belong to the Horn Brothers Company, while a new larger facility was erected on the eastern half of the property for the Horn Manufacturing Company.

Word of the new all-steel wagon boxes being made in Fort Dodge spread, and soon Sears and Roebuck Company contacted the Horn Manufacturing Company to have a look at the new prototypes.  When the Sears representatives arrived in Fort Dodge in February of 1946, they asked if they could test one of the prototypes.  Horn Manufacturing Company officials agreed, and the Sears team set about putting the box on a steel-wheeled running gear, loaded the box to the top with sand, and proceeded to pull the wagon over the frozen rough ground as fast as the tractor would go.  The Horn Manufacturing Company management watched nervously from a car following the wagon full of sand on that cold February day.  After pulling the wagon full of sand over the frozen roads around their Fort Dodge plant, the Sears team then pulled the loaded wagon into a ditch and out again!  This was much more than normal abuse for a wagon box!  Then the Sears team unloaded the sand and proceeded to look for cracks in the box.  They did not find any cracks, and soon the Sears and Roebuck Company signed a contract to purchase a large number of the all-steel boxes to be included in their David Bradley line of farm equipment.  Sears immediately discontinued the wooden barge-style box they had advertised in the Spring/Summer 1946 catalogue and introduced the all-steel flare-type 570-pound wagon box in the Fall/Winter 1946 catalogue.  The price for the box was $91.90.  The advertisement in the Sears catalogue stressed the ruggedness of the wagon box and showed a drawing of the wagon box being severely twisted as the wagon gear was being pulled over a rock.  The Horn Company management probably thought this was considerably understating the facts, given the severity of the test they had witnessed the previous spring!

The Sears contract was the saving grace for the Horn Company in the period immediately following the war.  Sears was later to renew the contract on an annual basis and would eventually buy 10,000 all-steel wagon boxes per year under the contract.  In accordance with the tradition that wagon boxes were painted green, the all-steel flare-type grain boxes which were sold to Sears for the first year of the contract were painted lime-green.  The particular shade of lime-green was chosen to match the David Bradley color scheme of red and green.   Paint numbers to this lime-green paint exist, but cannot be easily cross-referenced to NAPA (Martin-Senour) numbers or to current DuPont numbers.  W.G. Humphreys, editor of the David Bradley Newsletter, reports that best results in reproducing this lime-green paint have been obtained by mixing equal parts of the old style John Deere green (Martin-Senour 90R-3737) with John Deere yellow (Martin-Senour 90T-3739).

Sales of the wagon box by Sears was so successful that after that first year Sears felt confident enough to defy custom and they changed the color of the wagon box to David Bradley red.  Consequently, all wagon boxes sold by Sears under the David Bradley name, after the first year, were painted David Bradley red.  David Bradley red is correctly emulated these days by use of Massey-Ferguson tractor red (Martin-Senour 4763).  Although the overwhelming number of David Bradley wagon boxes seen today are red in color, a few samples of the green David Bradley wagon boxes dating from that first year of production can still be found around the midwest.

            Horn also sold the identical all-steel flare-type wagon box under their own name.  This box was painted red, stenciled with the Horn Manufacturing Company name and trimmed with some pin-striping.  The Horn Company used “International Red” for all products sold under the Horn name.  This paint is now known as “Farmall Red” (Martin-Senour 99-4115) to distinguish the paint from the newer darker shade of red used on current IHC equipment.  International Red became the company’s standard paint which was used on all the farm equipment manufactured under the Horn Company name.

In 1947, the Horn Manufacturing Company expanded their line of farm equipment to include the farm tractor loader which became known as the “Horn-draulic” loader.  The Horn-draulic loader had two hydraulic cylinders which were mounted vertically on either side of the tractor.  These cylinders were connected to a 3/8-inch steel cable which did the lifting of the loader.  The result, as Bob Tallman wrote in his article “Allied Equipment,” was “a loosely connected arrangement that was like the ears of a flopsy mopsy cottontail rabbit.” (Ibid., p. 10.)  Nonetheless, in the post-war farm market there was much pent-up demand for new products to make farming easier, and the Horn-draulic loader sold so well that it soon passed up the all-steel wagon box as the Horn Company’s leading farm equipment product.  This loader was also painted with the same red paint as the all-steel wagon box.

As noted in the Tallman article, the Horn Company developed a close relationship with Oliver Company for the marketing of the Horn-draulic loader.  Consequently, the Horn-draulic was sold at Oliver dealerships around the nation.  Because some International Harvester dealerships found that early designs of the IHC tractor loader were awkward and cumbersome, these dealerships marketed the Horn-draulic loader in their dealerships as a substitute for the unwieldy early IHC loader.  (Examples of the awkward IHC loaders can be seen in the 1944 IHC promotional movie “One-Man Harvesting.”)

Modifications were made to the Horn-draulic loader and separate models of the Horn-draulic were introduced for different styles of tractors available during the post-war period.  The advertisement contained in the Bob Tallman article at page 11 of the Winter issue of the Hart-Parr/Oliver Collector magazine, which probably dates from 1949, shows that five different models of Horn-draulic loader were available at that time:  the original cable-type loader, made for row-crop style tractors; the Conversion Loader, for wide front-end row-crop tractors; the standard-type loader for large standard style tractors (i.e., the Case D, LA and S; International W-6 and W-9; John Deere AO, AR, BR and D; Massey-Harris 30, 44 and 55; Minneapolis-Moline UTS; and, of course, Oliver 70, 77, 88, 90 and 99 Standard tractors); the “Ford-type” loader for smaller utility style tractors (i.e., the Ford 8N and Ford/Ferguson 9N and the Oliver 60 and 66 Standards); and another style of loader was designed for the emerging crawler market (i.e., John Deere MC and Oliver/Cletrac HG42 and HG68).  The advertisement boasts that various models of the Horn-draulic loader were designed to fit over 52 different tractors.  For the tractors without hydraulics the Horn Company sold Char-Lynn pumps under the name “Horn-draulic Power Units.”

Due to the tremendous sales of the loader and the wagon box, the Horn Company opened an Export Office in Chicago and eventually had a plant in Cardiff, England to capitalize on the farm market in Europe.  Domestically, along with the close relationship with Oliver and Sears, the Horn Company also marketed their farm equipment in the United States through the plethora of independent farm equipment dealerships which sprang up after the Second World War.  One such independent dealership was Becker and Preuhs.  This business was started by George Becker, Wilfred Preuhs and Alvin Preuhs in 1947, and was located behind the Wilke Hotel at about 107 North Main Street in LeSueur, Minnesota (1940 pop. 2,302).  The business was chiefly an auto and tractor repair business; however, they also sold some short line farm equipment.  Among the products sold by Becker and Preuhs were Ferguson plows and the Horn-draulic loader.

Near the end of 1947, one particular cable-type Horn-draulic loader, adorned with its coat of red paint and its “Horn-draulic” decals on the upper end of the boom arms on both sides of the loader, came out of the Horn plant at Fort Dodge, Iowa.  The loader was part of an order of farm equipment destined for the Becker-Preuhs dealership.  Although the Horn Company preferred to use their trucks for delivery of their products whenever possible, Becker and Preuhs had specified delivery by railroad because the Chicago Northwestern train depot in LeSueur was only about two blocks from their dealership.

Therefore, the loader and other equipment was loaded into a boxcar which was to become part of a train moving north out of Fort Dodge on the Minneapolis-St. Louis Railway.

Across the very flat plains of northern Iowa rode the loader in the late fall of 1947.  The cornstalks revealed that the corn had been picked, and many fields had already been plowed to bury the corn stalks in an attempt to defeat the corn borer which had caused $50 million dollars worth of damage to the nation’s corn crop in 1947.  The train passed through the Iowa towns of Humboldt (pop. 4,794) and Livermore (pop. 490) before connecting with the Chicago-Northwestern Railroad at LuVerne (pop. 418) and moving across North Central Iowa, through Algona (pop. 6,289), before crossing the Minnesota border at Elmore, Minnesota (1940 pop. 935).  The boxcar with the Horn-draulic loader then passed by the Stokley-Van Camp cannery in Winnebago, Minnesota (1940 pop. 1,992) and proceeded on north past the sweet corn fields which served the cannery and the seed corn fields of Northrup-King in southwestern Blue Earth County.  On the train went, until it arrived at the Chicago & Northwestern junction in Lake Crystal, Minnesota (1940 pop. 1,319).  Here the boxcar containing the Horn-draulic loader was switched to a train headed east to Mankato and then north up the lovely Minnesota River valley.  (Commercial advertising by the Green Giant Company, located in LeSueur, Minnesota, at that time, had dubbed the Minnesota River Valley as the “Valley of the Jolly Green Giant.”)  Although the tree foliage was now beyond its peak, the valley remained beautiful, even this late in the season.  Arriving in LeSueur, the Horn-draulic loader, along with the rest of the other Horn equipment, was off-loaded at the LeSueur depot where the order was picked up by employees of Becker and Preuhs and taken to the dealership.

By and large, the farms around the LeSueur area were diversified, each with their own dairy herd.  Dairy farming was hard work, but provided a regular income.  However, one of the problems faced by dairy farmers each year was the big pile of manure that built up outside their barns.  A track supporting a dump bucket was loaded with manure from the gutters of the barn each morning after milking.  The bucket was then wheeled along the track, down the alleyway of the barn, and out the door into the cow yard where the manure was dumped into a pile.  There is an old saying, mentioned in the IHC promotional movie Keep It Moving, that a country banker, when driving down the road, could make a pretty fair estimate of the worth of a farming operation by looking at the size of the manure pile outside the barn.  The bigger the pile, the more cows, indicating a strong base of regular income for the farm and therefore a good credit risk.

That big manure pile created a major problem, though, in the summer when it had to be moved to the field.  Farmers in the LeSueur area had for years been tackling this problem by hand, one “forkful” at a time, loading the spreader full from the pile and trying to get a load to the field during brief lulls in their field work.  It was a summer-long effort to reduce a manure pile!  No wonder, then, the hydraulic farm tractor loader was such an attraction to farmers.  It promised a much quicker and easier method of disposing large piles of manure.

One LeSueur area farmer who was curious about hydraulic loaders was Edwin Reddemann.  In 1948, Edwin and Mary (Krentz) Reddemann and their sons Eugene and Ivan operated the 80 acres that they owned and another 80 acres that they rented.  Although the Reddemann farm was to become a predominately Oliver equipment farm, the tractor purchased by Edwin Reddemann in 1948 was a new Farmall H.  One of the most attractive features of the Farmall H which Edwin Reddemann noticed was the built-in Touch-O-Matic hydraulic system.  He could see the possibilities of mounting a loader on the H without the need of a Char-Lynn auxiliary unit.  This would leave the power take-off shaft on the Farmall H free for other farm operations even while the loader remained on the tractor.  The Reddemanns had converted their four-wheel horse-drawn New Idea manure spreader so that it could be towed by a tractor.

In early 1948, Edwin Reddemann conceived of a plan to tackle the manure pile on the east side of his barn.  He reasoned that if the farmers of his neighborhood worked cooperatively each year for threshing and silo filling, why couldn’t they do the same to spread the manure from the piles on their respective farms.  He proposed to his neighbors Clarence Preuhs (brother of Wilfred Preuhs) and Adolph Preuhs that they all combine their finances to purchase a loader.  The idea was approved and soon the three families purchased a Horn-draulic loader from the Becker and Preuhs dealership.

That summer during the short lull in the harvest season, just after harvesting the wheat and oats and before silo filling, when field space became available in the wheat and oat fields to spread the manure, the neighbors gathered at the Reddemann farm with their tractors and manure spreaders.  Clarence Preuhs arrived on the Reddemann farm driving his John Deere M and tractor-drawn two-wheeled manure spreader across the field path that connected the Reddemann farm with the driveway to the Clarence Preuhs farm (this path was jokingly referred to as Interstate #169 South!).   Adolph Preuhs appeared with his four-wheeled New Idea manure spreader pulled by his John Deere H.  The east end of the Reddemann barn overlooked a hill, requiring the tractor and loader to work on the pile going up hill.  Nonetheless, the loader kept three manure spreaders busy going to and from the fields.  Quickly, the Reddemann manure pile was reduced to nothing and with much less effort than in previous years.  Once the job was completed at the Reddemann farm, the loader was removed from the Reddemann Farmall H and mounted on Clarence Preuhs’ 1945 John Deere A.  Then the next day they gathered on the 140-acre Clarence Preuhs farm.  On the south side of the barn was a year’s worth of manure from the dairy herd.  Working all that day, the pile was rapidly hauled to the field.  Next the Horn-draulic loader was switched to the Adoph Preuhs’ 1941 John Deere A for work on their manure pile.

Fascinated with this process on each farm was the next generation; Ivan Reddemann, Richard and Dave Preuhs, and Adolph’s grand-nephew Orval Loewe.  For them it was a great adventure, just like threshing season and silo filling season.   Soon these boys became the drivers of the tractors pulling the loaded manure spreaders to the fields.  As boys do, they became involved in hijinks on many occasions.  One time as Ivan and Richard were spreading in tandem across the field, Ivan’s spreader pulled slightly ahead in their “race” to the other end of the field.  A rock in the manure flew out of Ivan’s spreader and hit Richard in the mouth.  Luckily, no permanent damage was done, but the boys learned that farm work was not a game.  Before heading out “I-169” on the way to the fields on the Reddemann farm, the boys would stop at an apple tree at the edge of the yard to get some apples which were just starting to ripen.  It was a great time.  The memories of that time linger to this day in the minds of these boys, Ivan Reddemann, Oral Loewe and Dave Preuhs, who are now operating the same farms.

These days, Ivan Reddemann (long-time member of the Hart-Parr/Oliver Collectors Association and most eligible bachelor in Tyrone Township) lives alone on the Reddemann farm with his dog Barney.  (Barney is a wanderlust dog:  when things get a little slow around the Reddemann farm, Barney looks for the nearest school bus and follows it the seven or eight miles to town.  He has learned that school buses mean kids who love to play with dogs.  Generally, however, playtime is rather short at school before the first bell sounds and Barney is usually “arrested” by the LeSueur City police who know him by name.  Ivan is then called to bring Barney home.)  Ivan no longer milks cows, but raises beef calves and still uses the Horn-draulic loader to clean out the inside of his barn.  The loader is now permanently mounted on the 1948 Farmall H.  Rather than the tine bucket which came with the loader, Ivan uses a homemade snow bucket.  Despite the heavier load, the Horn-draulic loader continues to function well.  Once while the loader was being used to fill tiling ditches, the tractor and loader tuned over on its side, breaking a side arm on the loader.  This damage was repaired by Glendon Braun, a local farmer and master welder.  Despite the additional supporting braces that were welded onto the loader at that time, the loader remains in the same general appearance as when it was purchased in 1948.

The Horn family sold their interests in the Horn Manufacturing Company to AVCO Manufacturing Company in April of 1951.  AVCO assigned the operations of the Horn Company to its New Idea Farm Equipment Division.  Horn loaders under the New Idea name continued to be manufactured in the Fort Dodge facility along with stalk choppers and fertilizer spreaders.  In 1953, AVCO/New Idea expanded the Fort Dodge facility by adding 33,400 square feet of floor space to the existing plant.  By 1954, the plant employed 115 workers and had the capability to produce 1,500 loaders, 300 fertilizer spreaders and 1000 stalk shredders per month when working at full capacity.  In 1955, the manufacture of fertilizer spreaders was moved to the AVCO/New Idea facility in Collegeville, Pennsylvania.  Nonetheless, the Fort Dodge plant continued to produce loaders and by 1960 was employing 300 workers and manufacturing the New Idea hay conditioner.  Although AVCO\New Idea has since been sold to other concerns, the manufacture of farm equipment continues to this day at the Fort Dodge factory that originally produced the Horn-draulic loader on the 23-acre Horn Company site.

The Horn Brothers Company, which made the gymnasium partitions and bleacher seats, was sold to the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company of Chicago, Illinois in 1952.  Immediately after the sale, all operations for the manufacture of bleachers and gymnasium partitions located on the western side of the original 23-acre Horn Company site were removed from Fort Dodge to other Brunswick facilities around the nation.

The Horn-draulic loader continues to be a useful tool on some modern-day farms even to the present day.  Whether it survives as a useful working tool or as a restoration project, the Horn-draulic loader will continue to serve as a salute to the people involved in the design, manufacture and use of this pioneering farm loader and as a salute to American agriculture.